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Vista started off as perhaps the most ambitious vision that the Redmond giant has dared to dream. With time, that vision had to take a back seat to reality and what has finally been released has disappointed many. Before we get into the innards of this new operating system, to understand exactly what has changed and what those changes entail, let's take a quick look at how we came to Vista.

Flashback to , when Windows XP was about to be released to the world. Back then, the codename for the OS was Longhorn, and Longhorn was slated as the interim release between Vista and the next major release of Windows termed Blackcomb. For the curious: these codenames are derived from geographical locations around British Columbia— Blackcomb was a ski resort, much like Whistler the codename for Windows XP , while Longhorn was a strip of earth that you needed to traverse to get to Blackcomb from Whistler— the codenames were thus emblems of intent for the OS in question, and somewhat poetic.

Vista, or Longhorn back then, was a bit more ambitious than the product we now see on retail shelves. The idea was to create an operating system for the new age— one that would intelligently store your data, and route it transparently from locale to locale as you moved computers. Longhorn was slated to ship in ; the delay to its actual date would be one of the reasons for the derision it faced. The delay in question was set rolling at the end of this was when Windows XP faced the major UPnP vulnerability the vulnerability could allow anyone to take over a target computer , and the fallout from that security flaw forced Microsoft to re-evaluate the very nature of the organisation and reshuffle resources internally— it was now decided that XP needed better armour against attacks before resources could be allocated to any successor.

Of course, there were several other factors— the entire project had to be rebooted at least once, and Microsoft itself saw a drastic change in its structure with Windows veteran and Microsoft group vice pres- ident Jim Allchin declaring that Vista would be his last project within the halls of Microsoft. Between XP and Vista, the company was determined to improve the security of its Windows OS— a welcome proposition to what was plagued by worms, viruses, malware, and buffer over- flows.

During the transition from intent to beta to the final build, many features were cut from Longhorn— the most infamous being the SQL-based file system called WinFS. Monad was removed for security reasons as it was deemed likely to open the consumer version of Vista to the same kind of hacks and exploits Microsoft was eager to leave behind.

WinFS was removed just prior to the Longhorn reboot mentioned above— no solid reason was given for the feature-drop; many consider it to be a little too ambitious an undertaking. Features from WinFS were initially planned to make it to Vista post-release but even those plans were shelved. Windows Vista underwent a thorough beta testing phase— it was tested and evaluated by the largest group of beta testers MS has ever shared their OS with till date.

Come November , the OS was considered ready for manufacturing. December saw the release of the business edition of Vista, while the consumer release took place on 30 January Microsoft Vista is an operating system long overdue: not just from the perspective of the operating system's own tumultuous release cycle, but from an industry point of view as well. Technology has marched to the steady, relentless beat of progress, while the Windows OS has been caught lingering in the past- dragged down by its own history and success.

In many ways, Vista could not be a revolutionary OS thanks to the gargantuan install base it might potentially alienate or worse, leave open to compe- tition. So what we have here is a compromise— a system that cleans up all that it can, while still retaining the Windows DNA; and most importantly, an OS that lays down the foundation for future development in the Windows ecosystem. In the chapters to come, we will explore these ramifications in some detail, starting with the aspect of Vista that most seem to be unable to look beyond— its visual interface.

With such domination comes historical bag- gage. It is very difficult to exhaustively change the innards of the operating system without forcing incompatibility on to the very same customers that curse your name at every Blue Screen of Death.

Then there is the little detail of resting on your laurels Such has been the legacy of the Windows family of products: bandage old technolo- gies with just enough new code to not break the old while clum- sily introducing the new. Windows Vista aims to address this ill of Windows with swooping changes made to several internals of the OS, the least of which, gaining the most attention, is the User Interface UI itself.

But before we do that, we need to take a quick look at the various changes that Vista has introduced at the back- end of the operating system. Spreadsheets were suddenly more fun, and games, more real and dangerous. Before we get into further details, let's quickly understand what most operating systems are build around: APIs, or Application Programming Interfaces, are a bunch of instructions that tell a program how to interact with another program. An operating system is generally a bunch of such interconnecting interfaces— each telling the other how to talk to files, or draw windows, or print your doc- uments, and so on.

One such API is used to draw everything that you see on screen in a Windows environment. The API saw several layers added to it, which brought in more features and greater com- plexities to programmers. When it draws elements on screen, it creates actual images much like one would in Paint or Photoshop.

Being pixel-oriented, the GDI was also a bottleneck to read- ability as resolutions of monitors increased. A pixel-based system defines elements in absolute measures of pixels: you increase the resolution and the pixels get smaller, reducing the size of the ele- ment drawn as well. So while the GDI system suited the older dis- play hardware well, as displays with higher pixel density became more common, you needed to squint at the screen to read any- thing.

Due to the rudimentary nature of earlier video cards, most of these trans- forms were performed by the CPU. Old video cards barely had enough memory to remember little more than the final screen that was to be rendered on your monitor. Moreover, they lacked the processing power to do any mathematical calculations on their own. The cards were then little more than a holding space for frame- buffers a framebuffer is memory that stores the video frame that needs to be displayed on screen.

The cards would just be able to store that final image. It was the processor that needed to do the tasks of actually manipulating images to make them fit the myri- ad boxes, toolbars, menus, and so on. Being nothing more than a framebuffer also meant that the cards— and therefore the API— that leveraged the card did not keep historical track of various on screen elements. Say, for example, a desktop with two windows was rendered in this scenario: the window on top was an Explorer window browsing the C:, while just behind it was a Web browser window displaying a page.

Picture the Explorer window overlapping some area of the browser behind it. If you were to move the Explorer window to show the entire browser, Windows would make an API call asking for the entire frame to be redrawn. This lack of infor- mation also made transparencies a difficult task to execute there are workarounds to this, however.

Clearly, innovations were needed both on the hardware and the software level to better present interface information. These innovations first came about as Windows "accelerators. These accelerators slowly gave way to graphic cards with more complex transformation and rendering strengths NVIDIA's GeForce series introduced such functionalities to consumer hard- ware.

Today, a graphics card is powered by a processor powerful enough to handle complex mathematical calculations. These cards also come with enough memory to dwarf hard drive capacities of old. And this state persists with Windows XP: resolu- tion-independent interfaces are out of the question, and applica- tions have to run through multiple hoops and myriad "solutions" to offer visual effects such as window animations, transparencies, and window scaling.

The biggest change is that it has done away with a raster- based bit-mapped API— Vista offers APIs which make use of vector- based drawings to draw elements of the window. A vector is essen- tially a mathematical formula used to define an object.

As DPI rises, the size of fonts decreases. Now Vista, ought to, in theory at least, be able to solve this problem through its use of vector graphics. Unfortunately, due to hardware limitations, the interface of Vista itself is not vectorised and thus not resolution-independent. As you can see in the images below, the DPI scaling is not perfect: everything is nice until the DPI mark, after which the interface loses cohesion.

After the DPI mark, power buttons in the Start menu get out of proportion, while the search icon in Windows Explorer gets out-of-place. The important thing to note here is that vectors rely on real-world dimensions, while raster images are all pixel-based.

Thus Windows XP would draw a line 50 pixels long, while Windows Vista would draw a line 5 cm long— the difference here is that when you increase the resolution of your monitor, the 50 pixels line would appear smaller because the pixels are now much closer to each other, but the 5 cm line would still be 5 cm long. Thus a vector-based interface can be res- olution and pixel-density independent. Secondly, Vista offers hardware-accelerated support for this API: through the 3D interfaces of DirectX 9 and 10, Vista can lever- age modern video cards to simultaneously offer a visually rich and fast interface.

This total overhaul is termed the Windows Presentation Foundation. The DWM draws each window to its own buffer, thus tracking what each applica- tion is displaying at all times. These individual buffers can be filled, coloured, transformed, distorted, overlaid, and so on, to cre- ate all manner of effects Windows Presentation Foundation offer support to 2D and 3D shapes. It is also vector-based and hardware accelerated.

WPF also removes absolute units for measuring onscreen elements: while Windows XP uses pixels to draw up screen elements, Vista goes for real-world units— thus, a button would be one-inch tall, or a line 4 cm long, or a font 8 points big, and so on. This ensures that the size of the on-screen element remains the same even if the pixel density of the screen increases or decreases. For example, while creating an accounting software, the pro- grammers need to work closely with the interface designers to make sure that the buttons and scrollbars and so on, that the interface designers use to build the face of the program; are coded properly.

Thus a programmer needs to work closely with artists and interface designers to ensure that parties involved are on the same page. This is an obvious bottleneck which is allevi- ated by Vista by offering different code paths for interface and backend.

NET applications to take full advantage of Vista. This is since all APIs are written in. NET Framework 3. On a hardware level, this new design calls for an up-to-date video system for a PC. The video card, whether dedicated or onboard, would require at least 64 MB of RAM in order to serve the graphical whiz-bang Vista brings.

Apart from the memory requirement, the cards also need to support DirectX 9. A pixel shader is used to apply tex- tures and special effects to a screen element; support for a pixel shader is needed in order to pull off effects such as transparency and shadow for a window. Apart from this direct hardware sup- port, Vista also requires a new graphics driver in order to work as required.

This was done since the development of the new win- dow interface and DX10 happened in parallel and the team in charge of Windows Presentation Foundation did not wish to delay their work or build such an integral part of Windows on poten- tially unproven technology. This extended version is called Direct3D 9Ex. This is largely why Vista calls for a special driver version in order to sup- port Aero: the driver offers Direct3D 9Ex support. For hardware and software that supports the new Presentation Foundation, Vista will run a version of its interface termed Aero.

Aero offers some rudimentary display features that leverage the new technology, namely, transparency effects to individual win- dows; transition effects to maximising and minimising windows; live thumbnails on the taskbar which track and immediately dis- play any changes made to each window for example, a new chat message under MSN would immediately show up in the chat win- dow's thumbnail, even if the chat window is minimised.

Aero also offers a new way to flip through open windows called Flip3D. If your video card is not DirectX 9. Practically speaking, if your system has seen a video card update in the past three years, it should be able to run Windows Vista as it was meant to be run.

Laptop owners might face issues, however, if their onboard video chip does not offer DX9 support. Communication here includes all applica- tion-to-application messaging such as asynchronous messaging between applications or distributed transactions and Web serv- ices. These features were present in previous versions, but Vista combines them under a single banner and makes working with them easier. Microsoft has also exposed some workflow features under the heading of Windows Workflow Foundation WF — these are enter- prise-class tasks.

A workflow is a task that requires decisions to be taken at various points and has a flow— say a branching task to process inventory. WF not only exposes tools and APIs to easi- ly set up such workflows, but also tracks and monitors the work- flow and is involved in task scheduling. NET framework. If you are a Windows developer, your future thus lies in learning and mas- tering. NET tools and getting familiar with the intricacies of managed code.

Vista also makes some low-level changes to the way multime- dia is handled and presented by the operating system. The biggest change panders to the movie and the music industry by introducing elements for Digital Rights Management DRM. Typically, these involve reducing the quality of a video or audio source if your hardware does not play nice with DRM require- ments.

Media Foundation is meant to replace DirectShow of old and handles all multimedia requests from applications such as audio and video editors, music and movie players, and so on. It essentially provides a protected path to media formats, so much so that a DRM-flagged content piece can potentially refuse to be scanned for a system threat like a virus scan. Vista offers media to employ such protected paths which would only be accessible to plugins that have the proper authority to access the program.

Thus, a video player could potentially refuse to not only play a DRM protected file, but might also refuse to run a plugin, if it is not signed according to specification and requirement. This has been done to avoid hacks to HD content which might be either internal or via an outside attack through a third-party plugin. Apart from media protection, Media Foundation also introduces support for hardware acceleration of popular codecs.

Media Foundation extends this codec support to the H. Videos encoded using these would thus play smoother, given the appropriate hardware support. Windows Vista also refreshes the audio architecture as the Universal Audio Architecture.

This new structure provides In- fidelity support for professional creation of audio, apart from pro- viding separate mixers to disparate audio streams from multiple software sources. Hi-fidelity sound also requires an architecture which offers the support needed in terms of greater bandwidth, such that latencies while working on the hi-fidelity sound streams are reduced.

UAA does just that, especially at higher bitrates. It is also meant to allow simultaneously working with multiple sources of audio, be it playback or recording. Under UAA, all audio streams should now be high-definition playing at a frequency of at least 96 kHz at bit; audio support should also extend to 5. This could either be volume normalisation, speaker virtualisation to simulate multiple sources via headphones , speaker positioning, or even environmental effects. Now that we have better clarity on the improvements to the backend of Windows Vista, let's take a look at some of the ele- ments that are more visible than WinFX and its ilk— these would changes done to the user interface, additions of system-wide search, and numerous features such as ReadyBoost and the Sidebar.

In this chapter we will explore some of these changes made to ntoskrnl. The points will cover the new ways in which the kernel handles processes and prioritises threads, as also security, reliability, memory management, and more. Essentially, all the programs running on your comput- er—be they operating system services or your favourite word processor— need to access a limited set of resources, the most lim- ited and the most important of which is the computer's process itself or the CPU— generally referred to as CPU cycles.

These tasks of juggling are handled by the kernel of the OS, and this very act and manner of juggling has changed quite a bit under Vista. Vista offers a new scheduler for multimedia tasks called the Multimedia Class Scheduler Service MMCSS , which goes a long way in ensuring that multimedia applications are able to offer smooth and error-free playback to the end-user. Vista also ensures that tasks get their share of CPU cycles in a fair manner.

This is especially necessary in this age of multi-core processors, and vir- tualisation at both the hardware and software levels. In order to ensure that multiple threads get a go at a common CPU resource, a method of "interrupting" a process is employed at the kernel level. An "interrupt" essentially ensures that multi- ple processes get a shot at the CPU cycles. In many ways you can imagine the kernel as the personal secretary of the CPU who decides to allow one person to access the CPU every few millisec- onds.

Of course, things are not this simple. What the kernel does practically is that it "interrupts" whatever is happening every few seconds and then hands over the CPU to another task. This peri- odic interruption might be unfair to one or more processes: let's continue with the personal secretary analogy. Say you have been given an appointment with the CPU at This is, of course, an unfair allocation of CPU cycles.

Now, each modern process has a cycle counter register a small piece of silicon , which keeps track of what a thread is doing with CPU cycles. Vista makes use of this register to track precisely how many CPU cycles a thread executes. It also makes an estimate of how many cycles a CPU can execute in a clock interval, which helps the kernel to accurately ensure that each application is get- ting the turn it requires at the CPU.

The unfair manner in which the kernel might push back a process' scheduled go at the CPU is also alleviated: Vista does not count its own interrupt execution against a processes turn. This ensures that under Vista, a thread will always get a turn at the CPU. Today, there are many potentially CPU-intensive tasks always running in the background in an operating system.

Threads from programs such as anti-virus scanners, e-mail clients, instant messengers, search services, content indexers and so on constantly vie for CPU cycles. So much so that you might experience audio skipping or video stuttering as these tasks take over your CPU cycles.

Vista offers a means to ensure that media playback remains a smooth experience even as it balances and juggles these myriad non-enter- taining but necessary tasks. Under Vista, a multimedia application can register itself with MMCSS, telling the service about its multi- media needs on a task-wise basis. Vista also exposes the necessary APIs needed to perform this registrations, thus any third-party multime- dia application can sign up to the service.

The registry key itself defines areas of multimedia usage that an application might require— and defines task and scheduling preferences in keeping with multimedia type. But how does the whole thing actually work? When a registered application is run, MMCSS— which is run at a high priority itself— takes over and boosts the application's thread into a range indicated by the registry entry, and higher than all other threads running on the system.

Thus Windows Media Player 11 might assume 8 ms of CPU time over a 10 ms run, while the other 2 ms are doled out to other processes— during this 2 ms of time, the multimedia threads are throttled to lower priorities by the MMCSS service. Thread Priorities Thread priorities in Windows range from 0 to thread priorities 16 and higher are in the real-time priority range and higher than all other threads on a system.

Only the kernel's memory manager threads work at higher priorities of 28 and MMCSS runs its prior- ity-management thread at priority A symbolic link is essen- tially a pointer to the actual location of a data. Under Windows , directories had symbolic links and were called directory junc- tions, but it is with the advent of Vista that this concept has been extended to the files themselves.

Under Vista, changes have been made to commands to include the concept of symbolic links the DELETE command, for example, does not follow the link to the destination, which would delete the target itself, but deletes only the link. Symbolic links can be created using the Mklink command- which is able to create both a file link and a directory junction. Under Explorer, symbolic links are identified by the shortcut arrow. This is quite a lengthy process, one that requires quite a bit of scheduling and switching.

This small change increases the system's overall performance, especially for a server. Say for example, Vista running several background applications such as a disk defragmenter, an anti-virus scanner that scans individual files in the background, an indexing service that indexes disk content for faster service- in this scenario, running a foreground task might bring the sys- tem to its knees if the background tasks weren't properly priori- tised.

A foreground task should not have to wait for a back- ground task to finish in order to access a disk. Each class of service and application under Vista gets a priori- ty assigned to it. Thus for example, the Memory Manager of the kernel uses the Critical priority when it wishes to flush data from RAM to the hard drive, in order to make space in the memory of the system.

Under this system, an application such as Windows Media Player, along with MMCSS pri- ority boosts, can deliver nearly stutter-free playback of local con- tent. This puts unnecessary load on the systems involved and adds unneeded overhead for transactions. Explorer's Copy command, for example, now issues 1 MB data transactions.

The Windows kernel however, can only access half of that space by default; the other 2 GB is allocated to other threads run- ning on the processor. Within the limited 2 GB, the kernel is require to shuffle various bits and pieces of itself which are vital to the efficient running of the OS— details such as device drivers, file system cache, buffers, and so on. Prior to Vista, this 2 GB address space was allocated at boot time. Such a preset allocation led to inefficient use of the limited space as some areas required more space post-boot while others were assigned too much of the 2 GB.

The bit version of Vista can address far more memory space than the bit counterpart— this number is so high that the prac- tical ceiling will not be reached for a good time to come. The bit version of Vista does face the same ceiling, however. Thus, the amount of vir- tual memory used to store paged buffers can grow when device drivers ask for more, and it can shrink when the drivers release it.

For example, it can make use of external Flash drives and portable music players as additional memory to boost the per- formance of a system. Vista also offers an advanced caching system which caches frequently used programs to memory such that future launches of these programs are significantly faster. While these features are internal to the OS itself, Vista also offers an innovation in the form of Windows SideShow which will help take personal Windows data and relevant information to external devices such as phones and laptops.

Let's take a look at some of these new and advanced features of Vista. While gone, let's assume that an anti-virus program is triggered to scan your hard drive as part of a screen- saver, or even as a scheduled task. When the anti-virus is trig- gered, it might request the system to give access to more mem- ory than is currently available. Under this scenario, the system will flush all data associated with your Excel work to the hard drive and free up memory for the anti-virus program.

This is usually associated with thrashing of the hard drive: your system steadily blinks a red light to indicate constant disk access. Scenarios such as this are usually due to inefficient memory management. Memory is cached by the system in a buffer called the Standby List in the form of "pages. When the program is done using the memory space, its allocated page is cached to the end of the Standby List— if the program wants to access the page again, the Memory Manager is called to reassign the page to the program.

Under Vista, each Standby List is further divided into eight parts based on priorities: thus every page of memory has a priori- ty in the range of 0 to 7. The page inherits the priority from the program or thread that creates the page. Such a Standby List which is arranged by priority is then used by the Memory Manager to better anticipate future memory calls of an application and to thus make allowances for each application based on its historical usage.

To better understand how this happens, we need to take a closer look at how SuperFetch works. SuperFetch is a memory management scheme which is used to predict memory requirements of an application based on its his- torical usage of such resources. SuperFetch makes application launches quicker as time passes. It does so by tracking which appli- cations you often launch, and at what time, etc. It also calls on the Memory Manager to preload data and code from files on disk or from a paging file into the Standby List and assign priorities to pages.

Thus it might pre-fetch code from Adobe Photoshop, such that when you launch Photoshop, it is started much faster than before. When an application exits and frees up memory, SuperFetch asks the Memory Manager to fetch the applications associated data and code which is going to be flushed from the memory proper.

This data is then stored by SuperFetch, such that when you need to resume a program, SuperFetch can bring all or most of it back into memory. Going back to our scenario with the anti- virus: SuperFetch would store the data and code of the Excel sheet when the anti-virus application is launched.

It would also make sure that most of that code and data is back into memory before you return. SuperFetch extends this support to other aspects of the system as well, aspects such as Hibernation and Fast User Switching. For hibernation, SuperFetch stores data and code in the hibernation file that it expects based on historical records will be accessed during the subsequent resume.

In contrast, when you resume Windows XP, previously cached data must be reread from the disk when it is referenced. A hard drive read or write is almost as frequent as CPU to memory transfers. This highlights one of the biggest bottlenecks of our computer systems— hard disk access times. To alleviate this bottleneck, Vista introduces another layer of storage between the fast yet expensive RAM, and the slow yet inexpensive hard drive. This layer is that of the Flash memory: Flash is cheaper than RAM, but faster than the typi- cal hard drive by a factor of 10, thus it makes for a good in- between solution.

Vista thus makes use of any Flash device as a system cache, in lieu of the traditional hard drive cache. The idea is that the Flash cache is given priority if available and thus system bottlenecks are much reduced. This feature of Vista falls under the banner of ReadyBoost. ReadyBoost is of course only used if there is a Flash device pres- ent—while some motherboard will soon sport minimal Flash stor- age devices in the near future, currently this would largely be lim- ited to your music player or to a USB drive.

So how does ReadyBoost work? When you insert such a device, Vista asks if you would like to dedicate up to 4 GB of the disk for the purpose of data caching. SuperFetch then repopulates this cache in the background and then triggers the Ecache.

The data is then written into the cache file with a compression ratio of Thus the 4 GB cache can typi- cally store up to 8 GB of actual data. For example, if a cache call requires a sequential read access, ReadyBoost will direct the call to the hard drive, instead of the cache on Flash. This is because hard drives are faster at sequential reads than are Flash drives. Random reads, however, are satisfied from the Flash cache.

Another positive implication of ReadyBoost is to laptop own- ers—Flash access is less costly in terms of battery life than access to a hard drive. This should, in theory, increase battery life of a laptop. Plug a Flash drive or other removable media device into your computer. This should automatically open AutoPlay 2. If AutoPlay does not open, it might have been disabled. This will display the Properties dialog box for your Flash drive or other removable media device 5.

The recommended amount of memory to use for ReadyBoost acceleration is one to three times the amount of RAM installed in your system. Such H-HDDs, as they are called, should soon become regular fea- tures of our computer systems. Much like ReadyBoost, Windows Vista will make use of this Flash capacity to store frequently used data as cache. Vista can, for example store boot data to the cache when the system shuts down or hibernates. This should allow faster restarting or resuming, respectively.

The cache can also be used as a scratchpad for data reads and writes even when the hard drive has spun down— this should reduce the power consumed by the disk under normal usage; once again a plus point for laptop owners. Typically, the files which need to be called upon boot depend on which services and startup pro- grams the user requires to start the system up. To reduce this inefficiency, the system can cache data that is frequently called upon during the boot process.

Practically, code and data accessed during boot are traced by the system ReadyBoost in this case and the information is recorded as a cache file. ReadyBoot is, incidentally, implemented by the ReadyBoost service described earlier. ReadyBoost will continue monitoring the system for 90 seconds after start of the boot, or until 30 seconds after the shell has started, or until 60 seconds after all services have been initialised, whichever elapses first.

ReadyBoost uses idle CPU time to calculate a caching plan for the next boot based on historical data it has collected as trace information from the previous boot typically information per- taining to which files were accessed and where they are located on disk. The size of the cache depends on the total RAM available, but is large enough to create a reasonable cache and yet allow the sys- tem the memory it needs to boot smoothly.

LCD panels, in par- ticular, seem to be everywhere— from our keyboards, to our music players, to even our speaker systems. So why not extend and enhance the use of these panels to serve and bring us disparate information? This is the essence of the SideShow idea.

SideShow as a concept calls for a marriage between hardware and a new feature introduced into the Windows ecosystem— that of gadgets. A gadget under Vista is essentially a mini-application, generally built to perform a single task. Such gadgets can be found residing on the Sidebar or the Desktop of Vista.

A SideShow device can pull in data from your Windows Vista system and display it separately. A SideShow device might use gadgets to do this, or it might create programs all its own. For example, you might purchase a laptop in the near future which might have a small SideShow LCD window on the lid of the lap- top. This window can be used to display information on your email, or battery life remaining, or even the time of the day. When the host machine is turned off, the data viewed on the SideShow display is not the latest data but a cached version of your inbox, or contact, etc.

When the machine is powered on and online, the SideShow display will have real-time data. Such a device can come in handy in determining important data such as new mails or appointments , at a glance. If your laptop has an integrated Windows SideShow-compatible device, you can view your Windows Mail inbox without opening the lid or turning on the computer.

Mobile phones. With Windows SideShow, you can configure a compatible mobile phone to show you your contacts and calendar and other information. Remote controls. While you watch TV with your family on Windows Media Center, you can find out what programmes are showing next or schedule a recording for the next day. You can also browse through your Windows Media Center music collection from the display on the remote control without turning on the TV.

Devices which are SideShow capable will sport an appropriate logo. From here, you can set your computer to wake periodically such that all gadgets that are turned on can update your devices with the latest information. The Vista kernel has brought in several changes to the way applications and services are handled. Changes have also been made to bootup and shutdown processes; the Boot.

This chapter should have helped you understand just how deep the changes to the system go. In the next chapter, we will take a closer look at the changes made to the interface. We shall also take a quick look at the various applica- tions that Vista bundles along. Some of these features and programs are also in Windows XP, but their Vista counterparts generally add a feature or two to make them ever so slightly different.

With that ridiculous detail out of the way, what else does the interface bring to the table? Vista's Aero interface did not make its appear- ance until some time into the development process. The Windows development team wanted to create an experience around the interface, instead of just a bunch of buttons— to this end, sev- eral elements that talk and interact with the user were designed and integrated.

The most visible element to have undergone this change is the new Start button that leads the Vista taskbar. The button no longer carries the "Start" label: it is now spherical and glass-like in appearance, and is fittingly referred to as the "Orb" or the "Pearl. This change is not always welcome: instead of being able to launch applications directly from the Start Menu by typing out their first letters, the typing now triggers a search.

This process is usually a second or two slow- er than the previous method of launching applications. This also implies that hot-buttons are no longer valid for the Start Menu. However, this would only be noticed by expe- rienced users and the new search field does help more than it hinders, espe- cially since it can search docu- ments and recently-opened items as well. The second change to the Menu is that the "All Programs" item no longer triggers a sepa- rate menu, but opens in the same space as the left portion of the Start Menu.

This avoids the endless menu naviga- tion of the old method, and the reliance is now on scrolling up and down for programs. Yet again, this new method might prove a hin- drance to users used to the old menu style. Vista goes into a low-power state, wherein your work is saved to disk— the default behaviour is thus the Sleep mode as seen under XP. This has been done to reduce startup times, as it is much quicker to boot the OS from Sleep mode than a cold restart.

To access the traditional Shutdown command, you need to dig a bit deeper into the menu by clicking on an arrow right next to the "Lock" icon— this reveals all the methods for powering down or locking your computer: Switch User, Log off, Lock, Restart, Sleep, and Shutdown. Visual changes have also been made to the taskbar structure, which extends beyond the Orb. This behaviour changes when an application is maximised, when the taskbar becomes completely visible.

Some amount of anima- The aM new wind0 ws Clock tion is also used on the Start Menu, particularly for the area where Vista shows the user's display picture. This user icon animates to show iconic representa- tions of the user's documents folder, the pictures folder, his or her computer, and so on. Other major changes have been made to the system clock and the volume control, both of which reside in the tray of the Vista taskbar.

The system clock finally displays a calendar view when clicked, along with an analogue clock showing the time. The calen- dar allows you to browse through months, one at a time, or to zoom out to a month view, a year view, and a decade view, if you so wish. The clock can also display information from two other time zones, and is synced once per day to an Internet clock— a boon for the travellers.

This is due to changes made to Vista's audio system, as noted in the previous chapter. What this entails is that you can now set your audio player of choice at full volume, while your instant messenger at a significantly lower volume— this prevents message alerts from blaring full blast in the middle of a Beethoven symphony. Both visible and under-the-hood changes have been made to all manner of windows— be it a window to explore your drives or a dialog box to open or save a file under an application.

Let's start with the Explorer first. Vista has gotten rid of the menu bars of old— no more File, Edit, View, Help menus to be found by default. These buttons are seen everywhere in Vista from Explorer windows to Wizards. The default Explorer view now shows a much larger status bar, one that is able to showcase a lot more informa- tion around a selected file or a folder. For example, the status bar can be used to insert meta-tag information to certain filetypes— the new XPS format, for one.

One can also enable a preview pane under explorer. The pane does as you might expect it to do: you can use it to preview multimedia files— video files, for example, can be played in this pane; contents of text files are directly displayed.

The new Explorer also introduces some navigational changes. Explorer's left pane has been broken into two The left-hand pane is now split into two uneven parts— a smaller window on top shows the most common places that you explore, such as your Documents or Pictures folders.

Just below this pane is a slightly more traditional tree view of your computer; incidental- ly, the lower pane can be hidden from view by collapsing it. A breadcrumb is used to denote a path to a particular directory or file. They are extreme- ly useful as navigation aids: they not only show you where you cur- rently are, but also denote the path you took to get there.

Thus you can backtrack or head to another place on a system by following these "crumbs. The taskbar offers options to the user depending upon what the user has selected— a file or a folder. For example, selecting an HTML file will reveal an "Open" button which when clicked will open the file in the default application; the button also offers a drop-down if more than one application is able to open the file type— for the specific example of an HTML file then, you would get the options to open it in Internet Explorer, or Firefox, or Opera, and if you have the programs installed, even an HTML editor.

Apart from this one task of opening an item, the context-sensitive bar also offers options for printing the file, or e-mailing the file, or even burning the file to CD or DVD. The context sensitive taskbar The biggest addition, however, is that of the Search tool.

You can trigger a system-wide or a local search from almost every- where under Vista. By default, Vista indexes your personal fold- ers and e-mails, and exposes them under the Search tool. This can, of course, be changed easily; indexing, however, cannot be turned off. Searching is quick and is exposed by default as a simple query, which can, however, be extended to search on the basis of multiple variables such as filename, tags, authors, location, date, size, and whether the search should extend beyond the indexed locations.

Also available is a Search Pane, which offers quick filtering options to the search results on the basis of file types. Thus, if you run a search on "kit- tens", the tool will return all results under your indexed locations— you can then filter the results by clicking on "Picture", which will only show pictures with the term "kitten", or alternatively choose to show only e-mails exchanged with the word kitten in them by clicking "E-mail", and so on.

Some have been dropped altogether, while others no longer enjoy a high level of integration with the operating system. Let's take a look at each of these programs separately. Under Windows, specifically, this author recalls that Stardock had long ago introduced a concept quite similar to the now-prevalent Widgets. Vista intro- duced the Sidebar under the then-codenamed Longhorn build released in September While many have suggested that Vista borrows the idea from Konfabulator now Yahoo!

Widget Engine or from Apple's Dashboard, it is interesting to note that both these programs were introduced after September What, then, is a widget? The sim- plest explanation is that it is a mini-program— one stripped to the most rudimentary features. The Windows Sidebar is a simple panel that gath- ers several of these widgets— which are called Desktop Gadgets under Vista— into a single interface element.

The concept of the Sidebar originated The Sidebar from an internal Microsoft research in The Windows Sidebar is essentially meant to display quick information on various aspects of your social or online life. These Gadgets can reside on the Sidebar or as free-floating elements on the Desktop. The Sidebar itself can be placed at various places around the Desktop; it is even multi-monitor aware and can be placed on a second monitor if real- estate is prime on your primary display.

All in all, the Windows Sidebar is a nice addition to the operating system; however the addition of Yet Another Widgetised Sidebar seems unnecessary in the light of similar options from Yahoo! Longhorn might have been the first to showcase the concept, but the road to Vista has been so long, the Windows Sidebar seems to have been too late to arrive. Stardock, for example, has already made public its intention of leveraging its current Widget inventory and know-how to make Gadget creation and porting easier.

Head to gallery. The browser brings several changes and feature additions— long overdue— to the table. The most important point of difference between the IE7 implemen- tation under XP and Vista is that for Vista, IE7 is not integrated into the operating system, as Internet Explorer was for previous versions of Windows.

IE7 under Vista runs in a protected mode, wherein it is separated from the rest of the system; exploits and malicious content are prevented from writing to any other part of the system except the Temporary Internet Files without explicit user consent.

IE7 can also be launched without any add- ons or ActiveX controls— all third-party toolbars are also disabled in this mode. The dis- covery icon is greyed and disabled while browsing a site that doesn't offer con- tent syndication, while it activates to a bright orange if it stumbles upon an RSS feed. The feed reader is quite capa- ble—offering a standard newspaper layout, alongside a search utility and some filtering options based on date, author, and title. Thus a feed can be visible under more than one supported pro- gram.

An overhaul of several of the underlying technologies was also made to increase both security and Web rendering performance. You also have quick access to the tasks of: changing your IE security settings, or deleting browsing history, or even managing your browser add- ons. Clicking on Internet Options will open the Internet Properties window which offers several options under multiple tabs: General: The first tab allows you to set up a single home page, or multiple home pages; since Internet Explorer now supports tabbed browsing, you can set up more than one home page.

You can also delete your browsing history here. Note that unlike previ- ous versions, you do not have to delete cookies and cache sepa- rately. Clicking on Settings here will allow you to change the cache size and its location. Other options in the General tab include a Search field which allows you to change the default search engine that IE uses, a Tabs field which allows you to change the way tabs behave under IE, and finally the Appearance field through which you can change font and colour behaviour under IE.

Security: The second tab is where you can change the security levels or zones for IE. Each zone is for a particular network sce- nario and offers different settings for aspects such as ActiveX downloading allow, or prevent, for example. You can change any of these pre-set settings by clicking on the 'Custom level Privacy: The third tab which is somewhat related to the Security tab, in that it carries off some security options itself.

As with the Security tab, the Privacy tab offers several zones which define the level of privacy settings that apply to IE. Privacy tab also offers access to the in-built Pop-up Blocker of IE. Here you can turn on or off the Blocker and change its settings. Content: The fourth tab allows access to web content based on several settings which are offered here.

The very first element is that of Parental Controls, which as you can imagine, offers parental control over browsing behaviour: you can allow or block websites, maintain a time table for Internet browsing and so on.

The Content Advisor here, allows you to set certain criteria for websites which you want to browse or want a minor to browse. When enabled, Content Advisor compares the Web site against the criteria that are configured in Content Advisor.

The Web site will be displayed only if it meets or exceeds the criteria. The criteria that are configured in Content Advisor can be ratings criteria, lists of approved and disapproved Web sites, or both. If ratings criteria are used that is, if any rating settings other than 'Unrestricted' are used , by default, sites that are not rated by the chosen ratings system cannot be viewed. Ratings criteria include options such as "Content that sets a bad example for children", "Depiction of alco- hol use", "Depiction of drug use", "User-generated content", "Violence", "Nudity", and so on.

Here you can set when to check for new feeds, and other reading options. Connections: The fifth tab offers options that IE can use to con- nect to the Internet. Programs: Here you can determine whether IE is the default web browser. You can also manage any add-ons that you might have added to IE. An add-on can be an ActiveX control, a browser extension, or a browser helper object. You can enable or disable any or all such add-ons here. These are categorised under broad heading of: Accessibility where you can set the default zoom level for example , Browsing where you can disable third-part plugins, for example , HTTP 1.

The final option of Security offers controls over the Phishing Filter of IE, apart from other settings. To see which add-ons are installed on your IE browser: 1. Start Internet Explorer 2. Note that some web sites might not display correctly if an add-on is disabled, and thus disable one only if it is persistently causing problems.

Alternatively you can search for 'in ad' in the Start menu's search box and launch Internet Explorer No Add-ons. IE will now in a session without any add-ons. To Permanently Disable Add-ons 1. In the Show list, click Add-ons that have been used by Internet Explorer' to display all add-ons 4.

Click the add-on you want to disable, and then click Disable 5. Repeat step 4 for every add-on you want to disable 4. You can browse between tabs by clicking on the tab or by using the Quick Tabs button in IE. When you click on the arrow next to the Quick Tabs button a list of all the websites that you have open is displayed.

To switch to a site displayed in the list, click the site name. Click the Quick Tabs button to close the thumbnail view and return to the last page that you were viewing. By subscribing to a feed, you can get updated content, such as break- ing news or new posts added to your favourite blog, without having to visit the website.

The Feeds button in the Internet Explorer toolbar will light up when a feed is available for a webpage you're viewing. Click the button to display the feed or to subscribe to it. Along with a feed reader, IE also introduces a Zoom facility with this version. Page Zoom lets you enlarge or reduce the size of a web page. Unlike the previous version of zoom, which changed only the font size of the page, the new zoom enlarges or reduces everything on the page be it text or images.

To zoom in or out of a page, click on the Zoom button which is located in the lower right-hand corner of the screen. You can also access other zoom levels by clicking on the small arrow next to the Zoom button; note here that you can also specify a custom level of Zoom. You can also hold down the Ctrl button and use the mouse wheel to zoom into and out of a web page.

You can also search using different search providers to get better results. By default, IE uses the Live search engine but this can be easily changed to a search engine of your choice: 1. Open IE. The search box is situated in the upper right-hand cor- ner of IE 2. Click the arrow to the right of the search box 3. Click Find More Providers 4.

Click the search providers you would like to add. This opens the Add Search Provider dialog box 5. If you want the provider that you just added to be used by default when searching from the Address bar or search box, select the 'Make this my default search provider' check box 6. Click Add Provider 7. Repeat steps 4 through 6 for each provider you want to add 4.

Thank you. According to the accident report, you must always update InDesign to the latest patch 8. If that alone is not enough, delete or rename the files of two preference from your old account see replace your preferences for where to find them and copy the same folders on the new account. A genius on the Apple store recommended I have create a new main user account and empty the former, in order to escape a lot of general slowness that is limited to my main user account.

He didn't tell me exactly how to proceed. My question is how to ensure that the new user has access to all my documents, music, photos, and applications, while leaving behind any corrupt software slowing down my computer. The slowness is particularly noticeable when searching - in the Finder, Spotlight and especially by post.

I tried to Spotlight stop indexing and then re - index, several times. The computer can get sluggish in many functions of Finder as well. User account - add new Admin. User account - two handset. User account - copy files between accounts. The user account - data migration. User account - Rebuild. IM the same resolution running on two user accounts? There is no real way to just keep the provision office you create connection to connection - it restores the default value that which is set to be all.

It has nothing to do with the resolution of the screen or something like that. It's just how it was programmed to operate. There is a way around this with a tool where everything you need is right clickk on the Recycle Bin and click on restore desktop to get it back exactly as you wish.

Thirdly, my Adobe Acrobat gives me error messeges that tells me the program must close; and fourth, everytime I open Internet Explorer, it ask me to put a default search engine I guess that means that my user account creates all the problems, I'm the only one using the computer, and my personal user account is also the administrator. Your administrator user profile can are damaged. If you don't remember the password, try nothing because that's probably what you or seller did during the installation.

In addition to the replacement of an administrator account, you must create a second administrator account in case of emergency like this one and a standard user account for your daily activities for security reasons. Once that is done, don't forget to disable the HAA to save it in case it is necessary once again and for safety reasons since people often try to hack into systems using this account.

Do NOT use the HAA as your administrator account because if you lose the only administrator on the system account or it is damaged again, then you're watered. My windows user account is not allowing me to log in. He asks a password that has never served on this user account. This account is the administrator and I am unable to exercise the functions of don't.

I'm looking to reset the password for this user account. There is no other directors on this computer. This is often caused by malware infection, then when you get home it would be wise to do a scan. You can change your password to something you remember or use a white another administrative user account. If you had only an administrative user account, all is not lost. You can then follow the general recommendations for implementing user accounts in Vista that I will give you at the end of this post.

All this requires a certain level of computer skills. Select the default language, then select "repair your computer". Then select "Command Prompt". At the command prompt, type:. Remove the installation DVD and restart the computer.

Now, you will be able to connect to your user account by using the password that you set; for example, If you do not have a Vista installation DVD only have a recovery disk , the computer mftr. This menu of diagnosis is the same one where you can choose Safe Mode. Get to this menu by repeatedly pressing the F8 key as the computer starts. If you do not have this option, you can make a bootable Vista file repair DVD in this link:.

Note: All the Neosmart recovery disk downloads are torrent files. There is a good explanation of the torrent on the site Web of Neosmart files. You will need a torrent as muTorrent client to get the files. Torrent client will download the. Once you have fixed things, log on to the additional administrative account you will be made by the suggestions below and disable the administrator account integrated yet for security reasons:.

Now, you will get the command prompt. You absolutely don't want to have only one user account. As XP and all the other modern operating systems, Vista is a multi-user system with integrated system of accounts as default Administrator and comments. These accounts should be left alone because they are part of the structure of the operating system.

In particular, you do not want one account user with administrative privileges on Vista because the administrator account integrated normally only used in emergencies is disabled by default. If you use as an administrator for your daily work, and this account is corrupt, things will be difficult.

It is not impossible to activate the built-in administrator to rescue things, but there may be more that you want to do. Better not to put you in a bad situation at first. The user account that is for your daily work must be a Standard user, with the extra administrative user call it something like 'CompAdmin' or 'Tech' or similar only it for elevation purposes. As a user Standard is recommended for security reasons and will help protect your computer against infections. After you have created "CompAdmin", connect to it and change your normal user account Standard.

Then log on to your regular account. If you want to go directly to the desktop and ignore the Welcome screen with the icons of the user accounts, you can do this:. Uncheck "users must enter a user name and password to use this computer". Select a user account to connect automatically by clicking on the account you want to highlight and press OK. Enter the password for this user account when it exists when you are prompted. Leave blank if there is no password null.

I've been looking for an answer to this one so vain if this question has already been answered please point me in the right direction. I chose to hide the language bar after a reinstall of windows 7, but whenever the user account control appears I see the language bar sitting there, mocking me. I don't see any option to close, only to hide. It does not show during normal activity, only when the user account control POPs asking if I want to allow a program to run.

It's driving me crazy. In any case, here is the solution, because I don't think that these guys have a clue of what you're going on, of course, lol. Language bar Hidden Ok. If for any reason any you do not see a password for copy to reserved accounts, and instead, option you have this pop up with checkboxes:.

Default user account new users System accounts local system, local service, and network service Just check the two of them and ok. How can I stop firefox sync to synchronize with the other user accounts on windows 7. I have 2 user accounts on my computer. I don't want to have all my information is synchronized when using Firefox, other user accounts.

User names found using the command run "control userpasswords2" do not match my user accounts. Hello, on the 4 computer, when I use the command run, I get a list of 4 users. A, B, C, and comments. I have problems with this computer 4, I get access denied, check the spelling, error code 0 x.

All of these accounts should not match in computer 4? Don't you think that this problem of networking is related to incompatibility I describe? How can I fix this? Gift of TIA. I finally thought to it. They wore all the user names that came when I ran the command "control userpasswords2".

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So far going crazy? Any help would be appreciated Windows Windows Defender with no problems reported. Ideal solution would be something you may use a batch file to manipulate registry values to achieve your task. IS this a jpeg. Is this Ideas? I've attached this normal? I've got a chicken Icon in my userpasswords2 window?? IS an Easter Egg? I can't use my Control with any other few times, reboot and try again. What type of can often be solved by re-installing the keyboard driver. I am looking to do this for you find 'Display Driver Only'.

For some stuff, your simply not do the same thing. You can't disable that and dirvers are installed and not the customized application that comes with many of them. First download a program called HD audio drivers without the Realtek sound. For Nvidia, you can driver, or point the Device Manager driver update to the folder. Not installing the control panel might keeps some of 7-Zip, which is an Archiving program. So here's the deal: I just got a new motherboard, similar problem, but no solution.

All this is incredibly annoying because I often listen to "Mute all" I've found others with a on my speakers, and I know nothing is wrong with the speakers. On a standard form, I'd use something like: Me! What's the syntax cuz I'me puzzled!! I have a form named "MyForm" with control on a page of a tabbed control? Did you get some special program with the motherboard drivers that would the Wave control and it barely does anything.

I've found others with a other soundcard-like devices like a USB headset? Hi I've been searching for a solution to this volume "Mute all" All this is incredibly annoying because I often listen to Wave control, no sound comes out. Do you have the latest even when all volume sliders are set to maximum. So here's the deal: I just got a new motherboard, would really, really appreciate it.

Next the main volme control has no music on my computer, but now I basically can't hear it. However when I put mute for top, or all the way to the bottom, nothing changes. To note: I don't have a volume control on my keyboard, or problem for a while now, but to no avail. If anyone could help, I effect whatsoever on the volume of the computer. Also, when I put drivers for your soundcard installed?

I can can slide it all the way to the motherboard maker's website. All rights reserved. Download control userpasswords2 Repair Tool. Contents [show] 1. Auto login windows 10 via Userpasswords2 and open the windows 10 desktop? Enabling automatic Windows 10?

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