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Several papers [among which 1, 2,3,4,5] describe the geometry of the landslide and its kinematic features. The influence of rain on pore water pressures and. where γ (eq. ) represents the coefficient of hydrological variability of the river. By assuming a linear relationship.


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Gamurrini et al. Whatever the cause of the incorrect mileage of the route between the river and the Forum Aureli, an analysis of the differences of the two itineraries may allow at least a plausible solution. There were two ancient routes which connected Rome with Forum Aureli: one, as indicated by the tabula, per loca maritima, along the coast; the other presumably mostly inland and more direct, which neglected a number of the minor settlements along the coast, as they are listed on the tabula.

The possible mentioning of Forum Aurelii in connection with a medieval church in three medieval documents does unfortunately not solve the problem of the exact whereabouts of the ancient locality of Forum Aurelii, as the church no longer can be localised. The problem with the exact location of the Forum Aureli awaits further discoveries. And in the Privilegium Leonis IV, col. Both Signorelli , 73, n. Campanari ,96 n. And, as much of this research has been recently published, I 56 shall confine myself to a more general attempt, with limited descriptions of the material remains of the road, and whenever necessary, of its attendant structures, together with such comments as seem necessary to point out the problems involved.

The following conventions have been observed throughout. The maps used are those of the Istituto Geografico Militare of the Sometimes where the ancient and modern roads coincide, a kilometre reference is given. Where possible, and unless otherwise stated, this corresponds to the distance from Rome measured along the modern Via Aurelia, according to the present arrangement of the kilometre stone.

The words 'left', 'right', 'near' and 'far' are used from the point of view of the traveller leaving Rome. Other works of a certain importance to be noted are Gianfrotta , Frau ; Incitti For the area close to Tarquinia see especially Corsi ; and Corsi-Pocobelli Roma-Lorium The Via Aurelia had its starting point in Rome at a major market place and close to the river harbour of the Forum Boarium and the Portus Tiberinus57 thus answering the transport needs between Rome and coastal Etruria.

The urban track passed close the so-called Emporium — the paved open space between Porticus Aemilia and the riverbank —, which was used as a trading centre thanks to its connection both with the Via Aurelia and the river port of Rome. In the forming of this market the Via Aurelia played an important and particular role hitherto not considered by the scholars.

In the third century AD salt was provided from Via Aurelia, from the campus salinarum at Maccarese, now known as Campo Salino, thus substituting the old salt market on the Via Salaria. Cressedi, , 59 Veg. Rei Mil 4. From then up to the third before the ides of November 11 November , navigation is uncertain. From the third before the ides of November until the sixth before the ides of March 10 March the seas are closed.

Land transport complemented transportation by sea. Meat like boar etc, wine and oil products were probably transported by boat, but for all fresh products like fruit and vegetables, even sacrificial animals brought directly to Forum Boarium by way of land transport and other animals for slaughter. The capital itself can certainly be seen as a centre for the redistribution of imported luxuries and even if Rome is not generally regarded as a centre of manufacture we have the testimony from Cato who mentions goods like tunics, blankets, shoes, baskets, ploughs and yokes Agr.

Leaving the market Via Aurelia continued crossing the Pons Aemilius, the first stone bridge in Rome completed in BC, on the right bank of the 60 Tiber, then crossed the low ground of the whole of transtiberim These dates are confirmed by the Theodosian Code 13,9,3, see also E. Fulvius plura et maioris locavit usus: portum et pilas pontis in Tiberi, quibus pilis fornices post aliquot annos P.

Scipio Africanus et L. Mummius censores locaverunt imponendos; basilicam post argentarias novas et forum piscatorium circumdatis tabernis quas vendidit in privatum; That this passage refer to pons Aemilius is generally accepted see, Le Gall ,84; Gazzola To-day only one span remains of the Pons Aemilius, first built by the censors M.

Fulvius Nobilior and M. Aemilius Lepidus, with stone pier and a timber deck. This deck was replaced by stone arches by P. Scipio Africanus and L. Mummius in BC. The bridge was reconstructed some time after 12 BC according to Blake , It then reached the Porta Aurelia the modern Porta S.

Pancrazio at the summit of the hill, where after the construction of the Aurelianus' wall 62 , the urban track ended and the suburban started. It has stone retaining walls of tuff, with a single arched opening, and a projecting course of peperino to form a sidewalk for the road above.

The difficulty 63 of the grade of the straight course on the narrow ridge that ran out from the city possibly led to the creation of the Via Aurelia Nova, which branched from Via Cornelia south of the Leonine city, after having left 64 the Tiber at Ponte Elio heading for the Porta Aurelia Sancti Petri outside the Vatican in the Aurelian Wall and later the two suburban tracks joined at Madonna della Riposo in the Val Canuta near the Early Medieval tower Toretta Troili m to the right at 7,6 km of the modern road.

Coarelli a, Almeida , It is noteworthy that the urban track of the Via Aurelia with the porta Aurelia S. Pancrazio was included and thereby protected by the Aurelian wall finds from the urban track was noted by Gatti ? For the survival of the urban Aurelia in medieval times as vicus tuscus see Filippi , Already on the map by Stefano du Perac and in Fabretti 92, 94, map no 1; Fabretti , Essen ,1.

Here at km 16 of the Via Aurelia the agricultural works 71 have revealed the remains of a large Roman villa at the Quarto delle Colonne close to the Podere Colonnacci F. For the the necropolis of Villa Doria Pamphily see Nestori , ? For the possibility of a Roman villa at this site see A little further at the Casale della Bottacia km 18,8 some Roman construction material has been used for the Medieval 'castello', the two flanking towers of which once guarded the Via Aurelia.

This is to- day rebuilt as the church dello Spirito Santo and the habituated centre maintained the ancient function of a road station until the end of the last century, which is attested by the inscription on the building at the centre of the piazza. Nibby, reports, of a construction, which he labels 75 'praetorium della villa imperiale'. After the remains at Castel Guido, 76 which has mostly been the choice for the first statio on the Via Aurelia, 77 basalt stones from the ancient road are again visible at km 19,6.

The 78 locality of Le Vignacce, metres to the south of km 19, of the Via Aurelia contains the abatement where the Fosso di Pantan di Grano flows. Judging from the archaeological evidence alone, I cannot, 72 De Rossi ,19; Suburbio ,22 nr. It is more plausible, however, at 80 least from a topographic point of view, that the Roman Imperial villa lay at Castel Guido, perhaps at the same site as the present day agricultural co-operative, which is well situated in the landscape and close to the late Roman mausoleum, dated on account of construction characteristics between and AD, now the Chiesa dello Spirito Santo.

From Lorium to Baebiana and ad Turres From Castel di Guido the Aurelia descended towards the Arrone valley; the exact line of the road can still be traced north and slightly south to the modern gasoline station at the modern motorway, as marked on a 18th century map. The bridge depicted in that same map is mentioned 82 in historical documents, and the remains of the rebuilt bridge when?

Di Stato di Roma, Dissegni e Mappe, busta Tomasetti , 2, Diverticulum to Fregene After the bridge a country track branches off the modern road and winds down to the plain of Maccarese along the Fosso Arrone valley and, after a gap of two kilometres with no ancient remains, the line of the ancient road can be picked up again at the junction with the track from Casale delle Pulchette and Malagrotta.

At this junction a number of selce 84 paving blocks have been scattered about. From this spot the ancient track certainly followed the same line as the modern road down to Torre Maccarese, where the remains of the Roman habitation site of Fregenae have been identified. This road can also be seen on the Volpaia map from See also De Rossi , , and Frutaz See Tomasetti ,, for the inscription and CIL 11, For the road between Fregenae and Alsium see De Rossi, Close to the Casale m an intact section of selce paving still in position has been uncovered.

This is the best-preserved section of the ancient road between Rome and Forum Aureli. The road surface is here almost exactly 4,1 metres across, with a low curb of 88 selce on either side. The massive selce paving-blocks, packed with earth and selce-chips, were furnished with special gravel beddings in a trench of the required width and depth. More remains of the road have been found along the line of the modern road to Ponte I Tre Denari at km 27,8? For the technical construction of the Roman roads, see the valuable works by L.

Quilici , ; Idem , , ; Idem , 13; Idem , 9; Idem , ; ; , ; , The remains of the road that points in the direction of 91 Torrimpietra most probably leads to the road that connects Aurelia with Clodia at the junction Croccichi. A recently discovered milestone found in the locality 94 Il pineto near the fosso Quartaccio, circa 1,5 km Northwest to Statua, actually confirms this localisation. The mansio ad Turres in the Itinerarium has been the suggested choice by De Rossi.

This bridge, with remains still visible in the basement, serving as the foundation, of the Casale Palidoro was surely part of an important road junction for the connection with Via Clodia and an obvious site for a mansio. The stone, now preserved at the Ufficio Scavi di Cerveteri della Soprintendenza Archeologia per l'Etruria Meridionale, belongs to the road which went from ad Turres to Caere.

But cf. Mengarelli , tav. This clearly helps us to identify and 99 define the outline of a mansio in archaeological terms. A short description of its basic features therefore is necessary. For the other Roman villas in the territorry of Alsium esp. Ancient references are Val. For the bridge, see also Anziani , , fig. The upper part of the villa featured a series of porticoes and courtyards as well as a large area used as a garden.

Along the surrounding wall of the villa remains relative to a number of tabernae were discovered and slighly higher up were found the remains of the road that connected the villa to the Via Aurelia. To the south of the modern road, near the Cupino gully, the remains of a porch composed of brick columns faced with white plaster can be seen.

From the harbour, situated NW of the villa, parts are still preserved of the berthing quays and storerooms. Obs till ovan written sources: From Valerius Maximus 8,1 damn. Emilius Porcinus owned a large house here which was the object of accusations by the censor L. Cassius due to its exaggerated height. Even Cicero in Pro milone 20,54 talks about the coastal villas, among them that belonging to Pompey, which may be the one whose ruins are preserved near the eighteenth century villa La Posta in the vicinity of the Odescalchi Castle.

Along the beach between Odescalchi castle and Ladispoli a small pier in opus caementicium, supported by brick arches is still visible. At the Piazza della Rugiada the foundations of a large villa in opus reticulatum can be seen. This villa has a cistern and a small harbour and dates to between the end of the first century BC and the beginning of the 2nd century AD.

Continuing along the coast road, on the opposite side from Ladispoli, stand the Flavia tower which, due to the progressive withdrawal of the coastline, is now about 80 metres from the shore. The structure, in brickwork with corner strengtheners in travertine and edging in peperino, in its lower part incorporates remains of another Roman villa in opus reticulatum and latericium, which ruins are also partially visible on the nearby beach.

A couple of kilometers northwards along the beach the remains of a building in brickwork can be seen, this features two concentric fish-pool circles. To the right of the Aurelia at km 40,3 left of the Vaccina gully, a series of tumuli belonging to a necropolis from the th th 7 to 6 centuries BC are situated, featuring rather poor tombs. At km The correction is obviously one of considerable importance both to the interpretation of the ancient topography along the road s and to the function of the road and its itineraries.

The ancient track disappears for three kilometres after the Osteria Nuova but can be picked up again at a point just after the airport of Cerveteri, where traces of a diverticulum crosses Anziani , ; Miller , ; Mengarelli De Rossi et al. Later on more basalt paving stones can be seen at km 45,0; 45,5; 48,8 and at km 50,7 together with some architectural and pottery remains before the road reaches Santa Severa, the site of ancient Pyrgi.

For the greater part of the distance from Castel Odescalci at Palo through Ladispoli to Torre Flavia the ancient road is mostly buried under arable land, but scattered selce blocks confirm the line, and the original paving can be seen in sections at some points, notably at Tenuta di Torre Flavi, Casale Campi dei Mari and The main Roman feature along this coastal section, however, is the many amazing remains of Roman villas and Roman fisheries, already beginning before Alsium on the coast road that comes from Fregenae.

After Torre Flavia a bivio of the coast road debauched inland towards the Via Aurelia, crossed it as indicated by De Rossi, just after the airport, and continued as a diverticulum towards Cerveteri at km 43 approx. In my opinion, the main line of the Aurelia continued, for a further three kilometres along the coast, passing Casale Campo dei Mari, and reached a junction with the coast road at Casale di Monteosto at km 46,5.

The port, positio, of Pirgi of the itinerarium maritimum had functioned as an emporium when the sanctuary flourished between the 6th and 4th centuries BC. From an aerphoto from it is possible to recognize the remains of polygonal walls partly incorporated in the castle.

Along the NW side a section over a hundred metres in lenght can be seen. In the stretch of sea in front of the castle, below the level of the water, there are the remains of a Roman pier, erected on pre-existing Etruscan structures. According to Pallotino the coastline has been subjected to a variation. The activity of the port of Pyrgi, in spite of the ascendency of Centumcelle, must have been rather intense, as is well documented by the rich material from underwater archaeology, including the wreck of a late republican vessel carrying wineamphoras from Italy, Gianfrotta , For details of the Roman maritime fishtank at Pyrgi see Pellandra , The distance given for Panapione by the Itinerarium maritimum is 3 m.

The villa Grottini, which layout goes back to the beginning of the first century AD seems to have remained in use until the end of the third century AD. The landing, protected by a small promontory is not visible any longer probably because of the erosion, which also has attacked the foundation of the villa.

The identification with Panapione is a hypothetical reconstruction based solely on the distances given by the itinerarium maritimum. The statio and positio of Castrum Novum at a distance from the Aurelia main track of 0,5 km has long been located at a point immediately to the north of present day Santa Marinella in the locality of Torre Chiaruccia.

Melis and Serra Marinella at km 58,2 on a small promontory to the left, the remains of the great imperial villa known as the Villa della Grottacce can be seen. Originally the villa covered an area of about one and a half hectares and was divided into two floors with a large garden in its centre.

Of interest from an economic point of view is that the 14 intercommunicating rectangular cisterns lost their original function and were used as storerooms. In front of the villa was a small harbour with a breakwater pier and a large semicircular fishpond. The first layout of the villa should date to the first century AD and a likely restructuring the two subsequent centuries.

In this section, the course of Via Aurelia did not exactly follow the modern road, instead it curved slightly inland. Before the level crossing on the right, a secondary road, named Via Aurelia Vecchia, probably follows the course of the original road. At 58,9 between the statale and the bank where the railway runs, by the Finocchiara gully, the remains of a medieval bridge erected over an older bridge was discovered on the occasion of a flood in See also the detailed description by Pellandra , , of the Roman fishery at Santa Marinella.

The bridge of Apollo is in my opinion most likely identifiable with one of the two bridges behind the gully of Castelsecco. The remaining structure is composed of a metres long artificial bank and three arches. At km 60,4 to the left of Largo Impero the remains of the one-arch bridge over fosso di Bocca di Lepre il fosso di Valle Semplice? Part of the substructure still visible, were in concrete and supported the Via Aurelia carriageway, here 4,1 metres wide, at a height of 4,35 metres cf Quilici The date of its construction is estimated by Lugli and Gazzola as the second half of the second century BC.

See Bastianelli , no ; Bastianelli , 58; De Rossi et al. Best photo in Ashby , Confirmed by Favilla , For another date Galliazzo , This bridge with the same characteristics as the one before, but with 19 radial ashlars in limestone, supporting brickwork and with shoulders in opus caementicium can also be safely dated to the second half of the second century BC, restored in The site of the Odescalchi Castle and the surrounding area must have been the location of the villa purchased Gazzola , 24, n 14; Gianfrotta , The maritime colony has long been located at a point immidately to the north of Santa Marinella in the locality of Torre Chiarruca by Bastianelli and others.

The topography of the site is difficult to reconstruct because of the marine erosion and recent building activity. Due to its unsatisfactory position, the port can never have been very important but was rather a landing of modest proportions even in the major flourishing period of the site, 1st to 2nd cent. AD, and started to deteriorate soon after the construction of Centumcellae. See also Gianfrotta , For the Etruscan harbour at Castrum Novum see Frau , For the commercial function, see De Paolis , Substantial remains have been found above as well as below the water.

For the underwater finds see Gianfrotta , Still fundamental especially for the relation between the port and the city, Bastianelli Other important contributions by Romanelli ; De Paolis ; Correnti Now also Quilici , with bibliography. The villa was built on two levels sloping towards the sea, very few remains are left of it and these are difficult to find. At km 62,3 about metres above the railway, the remains of a rd bridge from the 3 sic! Mosca 13 At km 64, where Torre Chiarucca is located, Castrum Novum was situated, only a few brickwork structures in concrete and reticulatum remain from the Imperial age.

At km 64,6 at the Guardiole gully, lie the remains of a thermal bath badly conserved. This Augustean villa included a fishery for breeding shellfish. In the locality of Punta della Vipera, a small Etruscan shrine was discovered in At km 66 another maritime villa was situated. It too had a fish pool connected to it. This is one of the best-preserved examples of this type of architecture to be found along the whole Tyrrhenian coast.

It is quite likely that the site acted as a clearing centre for the metal from the deposits of the Tolfa basin. This is hypothesized as a result of the discovery of some smelting scoria. The settlement was probably abandoned at the time of Torelli , ; Maria donatella Gentili This is the only time the two roads units to follow the same course over a bridge omformulera.

After the torrent the road bends towards the punta del Marangone and for a long stretch the ancient basalt stones were visible until recently. The junction consisted of three roads: one turned to the right in direction Casale Pergi making its way to Aquae Tauri, from where it went on to Tarquinia, while the second road, the old coast-road, Bastianelli , 93 De Rossi et al.

Maffei and Nastasi , and Essi sono stati in parte rudimentalmente tagliati in forma pentagonale per incontrare meglio, sulle spalle, i blocchi squadrati della sostruzione stradale. L-B- Mosca 19 The coast-road continued very close to the coastline after Centumcellae passing through the small ancient harbour of Algae, at the locality of Mattonara near the Torre Valdaliga, where the remains of a Roman villa from the time of the Republic, with a 'peschiera' have been found. See photo by Ashby in Biffani et al.

See now Rustico , The semicircular bay over which the tower rise may well have been used as a landing since archaic times. The name derives from the many seawead left from the sea and most likely records the Roman positio Algae, mentioned in the itinerarium maritimum. See also Bastianelli , n. For the underwater finds from Valdaliga see Sonno, , Dennis , 1, ; Mengarelli , ; De Rossi , ;Torelli , 52, In this connection it seems proper to mention the positio Rapinio from the Itinerarium Maritimum, which Torelli , n.

My suggestion is that Rapinio and Minio fl. Contra Melis and Serra , Some underwaterfinds seems at least to confirm the location of the harbour: Shuey , ; Gianfrotta ,25; Frau Also Shuey , 17, 35; Gianfrotta , StEtr 54, ?

Gianfrotta: "nel set. Particolarmente conservata una partita di centinaia di tegole romane, ancora perfettamente allineate in positione di carico, alsotto delle quali rimane parte delle strutture lignee dell'imbarcazione.

See also Gianfrotta b, ; Gianfrotta , The horreae of the Roman harbour is clearly situated in the area of Torre degli Appestati, see map by Dasti. The later medieval and modern harbour the 18th century construction by the Pope Clemente XII the so called Porto Clementino was destructed by German bombs in the second World War, but there are still remains to be seen at Tarquinia Lido.

Recent exploration of the underwater excavations have revealed, at a point metres north to the Porto Clementino, parts of a naval carrier from the end of the 1st century BC to the beginning of the first AD. Pineaque extremis fluctuat umbra fretis. Pliny NH At Martanum, in Pian di Spille, 3,5 km north to the river mouth of Marta the structures and remains of two fisheries and a villa, individuated on air photos, are limited within an rectangular precinct of an enormous area of x m.

Further to the north the structures of another villa lies close to the mouth of the river Arrone. My suggestion here is that the first villa represents the positio Q. From the area is under excavation cf Corsi , Christofani , Instead I suggest that a branch of the original Aurelia turned north from this junction and continued to Vulci, while the later Aurelia ascended directly to the sea and Regisvilla Regae situated at Montalto Marina in the locality of Le Murelle.

The impressive remains of the Roman port speaks in favour of the continuous use of the port by Roman Vulci and Forum Aureli until it was abandoned in late Imperial times. Forum Aureli has for long been located somewhere near Montalto di Castro, De Rossi wants to place it one kilometre to the south of See Tortorici ; Christofani , 39; Tortorici , See also Tortorici-Morselli ; Tortorici Arnine, fluvius habet positionem by An.

This fact has recently been accepted by some scholars and led to in my view, the completely wrong identification with two roads mentioned in an inscription from AD of an Aurelia Vetus and an Aurelia Nova. There is no documentary evidence whatsoever that the censor built a road. The only argument that Coarelli and Wiseman, the two proponents of this De Rossi , But note the doubt of this location expressed in the article by Stanco , — See also the extensive bibliography by Cosentino , 50— The harbour of Cosa was certainly not a military harbour and anyway it was not developed until the mid second century, when it became an important commercial harbour.

I support the notion already put forward by several scholars that the inscription of Pedos curatorship refers to the Aurelia Vetus and Nova in Rome or its nearest vicinity. I have already suggested that the consul L. Aurelius Cotta of BC was at the head of this programme, which means that the new road built by Cotta at times took advantages of the existing road, but often was laid out in a straight line ex novo a little inland, apart from the coast.

This was obviously made to facilitate faster communication and make it easier for heavy transport, but with the intention to create a new axis for villa estates along the road. The relationship between the size of a scatter of artefacts and the subsurface remains that gave rise to this scatter In both a and b larger and smaller sites appeared together from the end of the second century BC. The larger farms are often very close to the road or access roads, while the smaller sites tended to be located further into the countryside.

Cosa harbour, lansera teor. Within this area there are physiographic regions as different as the Colline Metallifere, so called because of the mineralisation such as is found on Elba; or as at Talamone, where sedimentation has caused changes in the position of the shoreline and where a bay has filled-in since Roman times; or as at Populonia, where the coastline has retreated due to the beachcliff erosion since Etruscan times.

Landward of these modern beaches is a coastal plain with lagoons, swamps, and older barriers, beaches and dunes formed when sea levels were higher or when land was lower. Scattered inland hills may once have been coastal promontories similar to the hill of Cosa today. Strabo believed it was the only major Etruscan city situated directly on the sea.

Ancient slag heaps in the bay of Populonia attest its smelting industry which used the ore from the Elban mines that flourished from Etruscan into Roman times. Much of the coastal plain between the ager cosanus and Populonia has been altered in the twentieth century through the Ente Maremma, owing Carta Geologica d'Italia.

I, Foglio , The complicated situation of the coastal changes that have occurred both due sedimentation or siltation and due to agricultural changes must be taken into consideration, when we try to trace the course of the Via Aurelia. However, these problems have recently been elucidated by detailed archaeological and geological studies. Peut Itin. Forum Aureli 13 3 Armenita fl. Ente Maremma. Roma For a general description of the Maremma Toscana, see L. Bortolotti, La Maremma settentrionale Storia di un terriotorio.

Milano , For a general study of the geology and morphology of the Maremma, see the recent publication by A. Ciacci, 'L'ambiente naturale', in Gli Etruschi, , with further bibliography. This detour could well be to Vulci where a milestone found in , confirms the existence of one Via Aurelia at this important centre.

The tabula mentions two stationes along the coast between Forum Aureli and Cosa. I will identify the statio Armenita fl. This does not correspond with the distance given in the tabula, but even if we could accept a straight littoral line for the route between Forum Aureli and Cosa, the distance given — a total of 9 m. I would therefore suggest a distance of 12 m. See infra See also infra The next statio mentioned in the tabula is Albinia fl. At a distance of 9 m. This distance fits well with a possible location on the right side of the river Albegna at Torre della Saline.

IV, 32 and V,2. Quilici-Qulici , The Portus Herculis is mentioned in the Itinerarium Maritimum Weiss, s. Herculis Portus, RE 8, ? See also the map of Inghirami, Carta geometrica della Toscana, Firenze , but cf. Hasta has usually been located at the modern village of Alberese, where some Roman remains have been found. I would rather suggest a location a little earlier to the north of Collechio, which better corresponds to the distance given by the tabula.

The Itinerarium does not mention any intermediate station between Cosa and Lacus Aprilis near the Ombrone river , but the tabula also indicates a side road to Telamone from the Osa river: possibly a mansio at a natural crossroad to the different inland localities. For Heba see Eck and Pack ; Celuzza ?. Radke , Interesting is the form of the representation of the lacus in the tabula.

Pliny mentioned it as navigiorum capax and also Rutilius describes it as a safe landing: Tanginus umbronem, non est ignobile flumen, Quod tuto trepitas excipit ore rates: tam facilis pronis semper patet alveus undis, In pontum quotiens saeva procella ruit. See also Cardarelli ,, contra Gamurrini , Cuntz, ,58, suggests a location two km to the east of Grosseto at Ponte S. Martino, which I, however, consider to be too far inland. Ad naturally only indicates the vicinity of a place at an object, eg.

Ad Turrem. When circumstances called for it we must imagine how, at a certain road, it was necessary to have a sign-post that pointed out the direction of a mansio. The name would then be taken from the most significant object that could serve as point of reference.

The significance of this must in my opinion be that the mansio in question is situated at a certain distance from the object, in this case the Lacus Aprilis. For an extensive number of examples of this fact in the Itinerarium, see Roldan Hervas , , and for examples in the tabula, see Bosio , Castiglione della Pescaia is, however, not accepted to be identical with Salebro by all scholars, see particularly Cuntz ,59, and Philipp ,, for a different view.

Lopes Pegna has identified Manliana with Follonica. As for Populonia I suggest that the mansio was identical with or at least very close to, the Portus Populonia of the Itinerarium maritimum situated in the Gulf of Baratti. Christofani , XII, Cuntz , Blake, , , describes the bridge in the following terms: This lofty bridge, with its impressive ramp somewhat restored, still serves its original purpose.

The piers and the wall construction associated with the bridge show alternating rows of headers and stretchers, in which the headers are heavily rusticated. The masonry displays a clever use of the materials available: a rather soft reddish tufa for the core and for pillar-like projections of which the purpose is not clear, local grey tufa nenfro for the facing and the voussoirs of the east arch and the great central span.

Mortar was employed with the nenfro, but not with the red tufa, nor between the voussoirs. Dowels and cramps apparently were not used. These considerations suggest a date about 90 BC, which was the time when Vulci became a municipium Cf Gazzola: L'arco, a sciena d'asino molto accentuata, di circa 35 m. Le pile e i paramenti murari mostrano ancora le strutture originali, a corsi alternati di blocchi di punta e di taglio. Il risultato dell'elaborazione successiva Fig.

North of the Marina di Pescia Romana lies the impressive 16th century building of Le Gratticiare, which guarded the coast and coast-road and at that time following up the tradition of ad Nonas. My interpretation of the evidence is that the inland branch of the road met the coast-branch at the northern end of the lake of Burano in its ancient extension. Here the settlements were particularly dense and this site fits well with the centuration.

Miller , ; Fasciato , ; Brown ,21, and Celuzza-Regoli , For the settlements, see Celuzza-Regoli , 36 Fig. For the traces of centuriation visible on air photos, see Castagnoli For older surveys of the lago Burano, see Del Rosso , Levi ,, and see also Fasciato , , n. Along the Via Aurelia in the zone of Ceriolo a hoard of Roman coins was found in Giardino Vecchio in a straight line from Ad Nonas and further more inland on a small hill?

Lopes interprets the fact that the tabula has a sigla co between Cosa and Succosa as tercio. However this sigla which occurs several times in the tabula in stretches of roads of the same shortness, could rather be explained as con, or connexum or coniunctum. Romanization, , figs. Miller Desjardins , 98 compendium. AD in the Arx of Cosa, see Fentress et al. The settlements at Monte Argentario include the important villas at Porto S.

Stefano, S. Mara, Porto Ercole. Mamiliano in the vicinity of a large Roman villa. Because Livy mentions only the Portus Cosanus, and because the Portus Herculis is documented only in the later Imperial sources, Anziani concluded that the ancient ports of Cosa and Hercules were one and the same, located at the site of the modern harbour of Port'Ercole on the Argentario peninsula.

This assumption was followed by Lily R. Taylor and later adopted by Brown, who believes that the port of Hercules was the earliest port in the area and served the colony of Cosa in the third century BC before the port at the Tagliata was built. Hostilius Mancinus' departure from the harbor in BC on his way to Numantia.

Two or three wrecks from 2nd to 1st cent BC were finally found in an underwater survey in ? Brasini, Resti di costruzioni preromane rinvenuti presso Port'Ercole. Monteargentario Ancient sources: Val. Obsequens Prod Lib. Haud procul hinc petitur signatus ab Hercule portus;" Rendini, , The development of the Portus Herculis must have followed close behind with the building of a road across the southern tombolo and its connection to the coastal Via Aurelia.

Both harbours are relatively small by comparison with later Imperial ports, but they must have been used for a variety of maritime needs - first by colonists and navies , and later by entrepreneurs and villa owners from the Monte Argentario but also from the ager Cosanus and Portus Herculis probably served as the port through which imported goods could pass.

Portus Incitaria and positio Domitiana. The mysterious port of Incitaria have recently been identified with the bay at the 'villa dei Muracci' on the northern side of the promontory of Ansedonia. Of the total number of amphora fragments found on the site, Will estimates that 9 percent are Greco-Italic and can be dated from the late fourth through the late second century BC. The greater part of the amphora material from the whole site -about 75 percent- comes from the late second throough the first century BC.

Of the total number of amphora fragments bearing stamps, 86 percent can be identified with one group of early Roman amphoras associated with the name of their manufacturers, the Sestii, from the stamps upon the jars. For more details of the trade of portus cosanus see McCann , , In a similiar way as Portus Incitaria the positio of Domitiana has been identified with an Imperial villa at S. Liberata and here are the distances correct between Incitaria-Domitiana and between Domitiana and Alibinia if we accept that the last port was inside the river mouth of Albinia.

The position and the fortress character of the city has been seen in connection with the threat, particularly in the years of the foundation, that the Carthaginian fleet constituted for the Romans. This figure corresponds to 16 actus. In the s the decumani were still visible on the ground like many other features now gone. Cf infra It is evident that this decumanus was the first one to be laid out, and the place where the measurement started lay exactly at this gate.

Of the three gates in the fortifications of Cosa, the north-west one was the amplest in size and designed for the busiest traffic. Very probably, it never existed here, at least in the form of a formal via. This can be explained by the geomorphology of the terrain, which makes it impossible to build a straight course, while it is completely logical that the course of the roadway, just outside of the gate cuts the slope with moderate inclination and then unites with a ridge which opens up to the north and continues all the way to the plain and runs with the same course joining the Via Aurelia, which we can trace due to the existing remains of margines in several places See fig The first traces of the decumanus maximus, consisting in traces of kerb-stones are confirmed at the little hill to the north of Via Aurelia; Cf the reconstruction of the younger centuriation of Cales and Bovianum in Chouquer , figs 60, Cales III and fig In the plain that follows, the road is preserved largely.

First, the ditch from a modern road does offer a complete section. In the core of the road proper it has an artificial foundation formed by three layers of stone of different dimensions with a thickness of circa 1 metre, and limited by stone blocks. This road had a width of c. At the sides of this runs a gravel road to Northwest to the mountains; this too with a width of 3,90 m, and to the south-east another branch towards the valley which ended with a sub- structure of large blocks.

The discovered traces of this road is important, because in them we may recognise the first track of the road from Cosa to Caletra; it permits us to adjust its course which is proposed in the place of the ancient road which at least in this part not is ancient, as we will see below. It remains to establish the precise connection between the decumanus maximus and the continuation of the road for Caletra in the zone called "le Tombe". At the hill the remains of the road may be judged to be ancient, it here directs its course to the north; or perhaps more to the west.

The traces of the ancient road are preserved in the plain in the zone called "delle tombe". Of this road, the traces are lost when the plain of the tombs ascends onto the hill to the south. The first decumanus to the left of the maximus is visible on the air-photos between the railroad and the road which branch off from Aurelia in the direction towards Cosa.

On the ground small traces of rubbles can be found near the railroad and the road mentioned above. Less secure are the cardines, perhaps one can be recognised where the modern road, that leaves Via Aurelia for Cosa, passes in front of the ancient building of Casale Masarotti. This road is in fact perpendicular to the decumani and has a distance to the gate of Cosa of 32 actus, which is the double of the interval between the decumani. This starts at the bottom of the hill to the south of the plain close to the ancient road mentioned above, which climbs the hill with the same course as the modern road and then turns perpendicularly and runs along the slope of the hill and to the bottom of it, seemingly delimiting the area which ought to be the centre for the "tombe".

However, the most important system of these structures is to be found at Poggio di Malabarba. As for the general viability of the zone, see supra in the description of the road. The urban centre of Cosa presents a strong orthogonal pattern notwithstanding the difficulties of the terrain. The road system subdivides the city into rectangular blocks in the centre of the city, 32,5 to 37 metres wide one actus. See fig. The decumanus maximus is a road which unites the Via Aurelia, with Saturnia, the Etruscan centre colonised in BC in the high valley of the river Albegna and with the internal road of Via Clodia.

The other decumani are however dry gravel roads probably flanked by side-ditches. There does not seem to be a veritable cardo maximus, which perhaps can be identified with a straight line established from the north-western gate of the city and the river mouth of Albegna and only in parts reiterated by the track of the Via Aurelia. Remains of centuriation can be also found in the territory close to ager Cosanus: near the coast behind Orbetello; in the valley of Capalbio and in the valley of Albegna.

It seems that the large estates like Settefinestre etc were already established on a regular grid pattern, and that Via Aurelia deliberately followed the grid, sometimes diverting to pick up a side-road of a statio or a central place like Cosa or its harbours. In other words, the planners of the road went out their way to avoid the expensive and litigious business of expropriating land and splitting estates.

Rathbone ,, for a discussion of the agriculture in ager Cosanus, now, however, largely superseeded by the works by Carandini ; Cambi, , ; Dyson a,b? The road from Cosa to Populonia Hyg. The firsts are the decumanus and the cardo maximus and are roads, of a precise determined length. Linearii are the other limites esse mensurae tantum disterminandae causa sunt constituti etc etc In the interior of the river-mouth at Torre delle Saline, several finds of marble sculpture have been made.

I am sure that the Torre delle Saline is the site where the river port Alminia fluvius habet positionem once was located practically on the Via Aurelia, where a architectural structure with indications of a mansio has been individuated. At Fosso del'Origlio note the toponyme the traces of the road can be picked up again and then followed to the Osa river in a position opposite the Poggio Civitella some Fentress , It had been an important garrison during the fourth and third centuries BC for the lower valley of Albegna, and a point of control for the Tyrrhenian routes.

Naturally the traces of the coastal branch are for this area more scarce and the road is only vaguely visible on air photos. A Roman bridge was, See the map I. Carta d'Italia, For the milestone see Fentress , Gamurrini , ; Cuntz ,70, and Lopes Pegna , Schmiedt , fig. This bridge, which was destructed in the second World War, does, in my opinion, clearly refer to the coastal branch of the Via Aurelia which, up to this point, as far as the archaeological evidence is concerned, is mainly indicated by the series of important Roman villas along the shore of the Gulf of Talamone.

From Fonteblanda the unified road ran along the valley to the east of the Uccelina mountains and passed Collechio, where remains of the road have been noticed, before it branched off slightly to the west after the Alberese railway station and finally reached the left bank of the Ombrone river opposite the Casale Trappola.

For the monumental remains of the villa at Madonna delle Grazie, where remains of the pavements of a Roman road also was found, see Campanile NSc , ; Raveggi ,; Von Vacano , ; Attolini et al. Mazzolai , I consider it a fair conclusion that the river harbour Fluvial Umbronis of the It. At Canova, c.

No doubt an interior road to the Augustan colony at Roselle, c. The topography of the zone between the Ombrone river and the present Castiglione della Pescaia must have been subject for slow changes in the past. The latest research for the Roman period suggests the presence of a generous lagunal basin, separated from the open sea by a sand bar where one or more mouthes opened up. In the hinterland several other finds confirms the status of Roman Salebro as an important statio and harbour town.

We should simply accept that the itinerary for this complicated part of the Via Aurelia, between Hasta and Salebro, is so far only proven to have run on the sand-bar that divided the Umbro lagoon from the sea. Air photography here confirms the archaeological evidence. See Curri , , n. See rev. Camporeale in StEtr 46, , See also the map in Fig. For the archaeological evidence see Pasquale , ; Curri , for a complete documentation.

For other Roman finds in Pian di Rocca The exact location for the statio would then be at Puntone Nuovo in the little piazza opposite the restaurant Le Costiere, where a concentration of materials dating from the second century BC to the end of the fourth century AD have been recovered. At a point at c. See Curri , n. The Roman villa at Riotorto may be a confirmation of this choice and for the detour towards the Baratti gulf.

Lopes Pegna , None of these, however, support their diverging reconstructions with adequate archaeological evidence, so their conclusions are hard to accept. The port of Populonia, situated in the Baratti gulf, by nature protected of an underwater sand bar, which serves as a base for harbour works. This port had an important function for the mineral zone of the hinterland and for the island of Elba and continued to be in use in the time of Strabo but the city of Populonia was then uninhabited.

Among numerous underwater finds from recent eplorations is in particular worth to mention the Roman wreck B from the Baratti gulf, with various material from the 2nd to first century B. To-day the coastline has retreated due to beachcliff erosion since Roman times.

Other interesting archaeological finds that confirms Populonias importance in Roman times include the finds in the fields of Fattoria Alba, close to the Roman villas between Poggio S. Leonardo and Poggio del Molino at the northern edge of the Baratti Gulf. The territory of Vulci, like that of Tarquinia, is distinguished by a double feature: to the south the plain near the sea, with its large and populous centres, to the north the hilly mountain range, where small but numerous settlements emerged.

The road system reflects this distinction: to the north we have the Via Clodia, to the south Via Aurelia, excavation. For fattoria Alba, see Fedeli , n. Leonardo, Minto , 88; Minto , ; Fedeli , n. The question of who controls a tract of land and its resident population and who can mobilise the population located within the settlements in that territory is connected with the issue of political boundary.

A political territory may be reflected in etnicity and the extraction of surplus not simply within a political territory but on its fringes. In sum Vulci and its territory was characterised by a high degree of accessibility through the connection with the coast by the Aurelia and the connection with inner Etruria by way of Via Clodia. It was also a question of availability of territory since the defeat of the Etruscans. The good physical settings of the landscape was a third quality for settlers.

The dynamic relationship between the urban centre and the development of the settled landscape of ager cosanus continued until it abruptly declined sometimes in the second century AD. Only a third of the villas of the immediate hinterland of Cosa continue after the second century. With the present state of knowledge it is difficult to establish how general this fluctuation was Digest 19,2; 19,4 describes how landlords intervented to help tenants in bad years, a detailed discussion, see de Neeve Landlords could expect a steady income from tenants, Cic Pro Caec The current evidence is largely composed of settlements larger than 10 ha, with brief local glimpses of the rural settlement that presumably supported them economically.

In the case of the Val d'Albegna a spatial gap between major urban centres, Cosa, Populonia, Telamon, coincided with a river valley and a major river system placed between the Etruscan cities of Vetulonia, Roselle and Vulci. In the well defined space the land was filled in turn by a succession of small, short-lived but important settlements such as Marsigliana d'Albegna and with the villas on the river terraces, which had a better survival rate. The Etruscan inland emporion at Doganella had controlled the trade at this important stretch of territory between North and South Etruria.

The profound modification of the settlement pattern reflects the end of intensive agriculture which characterised the slave-based villa- enterprise. So the villa of Settefinestre ceased to produce wine, and turned to the breeding of pigs. Elsewhere, it is likely that grain and cattle were produced.

The relationship between the larger estates of the more distant villas, and the relative survival of farms and villas in the Albegna valley lies in the communication through the excellent road-net, built before the time of the collapse of the slaves villas. Levels of function Within the structure of the Via Aurelia network it is possible to distinguish three levels of functions for communication and transport: 1.

Level of transit, this is the function that connects two major nodes or centres on a long-distance basis e. Roma - Centumcelle in the example in fig. Level of penetration, function of the secondary roads that penetrate the countryside parallel to Via Aurelia in the interior example Via Clodia and Via Cassia.

Level of distribution, the function of the service roads that connect centres on the Via Aurelia with major or minor localities on the secondary roads Centumcelle-Baccanas; Cosa-Saturnia etc. The first level is performed by the major via publica of the territory, in this case the Via Aurelia. This level is distinguished by its more complex structure, several double tracks, connecting several major centres etc.

The second level is likewise performed by viae publicae, but of minor complexity, the Via Clodia is a clear example of this with a construction more adjusted to the environment than to far- reaching ends. Via Cassia is more questionable with a subsystem of roads of its own and a degree of construction that is very similar to Via Aurelia, Via Flaminia and other great trunk roads.

The third level is obviously performed by viae vicinales like the Cosa-Saturnia road or Vulci-xx road. Conclusion For the first part of this section of the road the material evidence is sufficient for a safe confirmation of the course given by the itineraries.

At some points the archaeological remains even confirms two parallel roads, namely at a short section north to Cosa at San Donato where the Republican milestone was found and at Chiarone? The evidence for the section at the coast by Grosseto is rather scanty, but I think it is enough partly because of its character of actual physical remains of the road and partly because it so well fits in with the literary sources. The same can be said of the Scarlino section, where the recent surveys in connection with the excavation of the medieval Scarlino have revealed more Roman remains that attest the coastal route of the Aurelia here.

True, very little has yet been found of actual road surface for this part, but here we are again helped by the literary sources, which are very explicit as well as unanimous for the part Salebro-Populonia. Un frammento dello stesso potere primordiale degli Antichi, Zet il Guardiano degli Archi Arc Warden , ha promesso di porre fine allo scontro tra Radiant e Dire, facendoli riappacificare o annientandoli entrambi.

Attacca nemici isolati con flussi di energia, o distorci lo spazio per generare un campo protettivo attorno agli alleati. Nome in inglese: Magnetic Field Genera un campo circolare di energia magnetica distorcente che protegge gli Eroi alleati e le strutture al suo interno deflettendo gli attacchi provenienti dall'esterno. Nome in inglese: Spark Wraith Evoca uno Spettro Scintilla che si materializza lentamente e controlla un'area bersagliata fino a quando un nemico non entra nel suo raggio d'azione.

Una volta trovato un bersaglio, lo spettro si fonde con esso, infliggendo danno magico. Forgiato dai Martelli di Celestarr e infuso con l'energia degli Antichi, questo elmo ha come dimora prediletta la fronte del Signore dei Cieli in persona. Gli infedeli tremeranno davanti alla vera potenza dei tuoni che colpiscono il campo di battaglia! Concesso a tutti gli utenti del Compendio del The International del , il traguardo del terreno desertico compie il suo debutto su Dota 2.

I giocatori che acquistano questo allettante tesoro ne troveranno un altro annidato all'interno! Dai un'occhiata alle tue statistiche nella pagina di ogni Eroe all'interno della galleria, oppure visita il tuo profilo per una lista completa. Grazie al nuovo aggiornamento dell'Arsenale, puoi risparmiare tempo e licenziare lo scudiero accedendo a tutti i tuoi oggetti acquistati di recente direttamente da un qualsiasi menu nel gioco.

Non tutti i negozi migliori sono segreti. Ora accessibile dal menu in alto nel client di Dota 2, visita la nuova sezione del Negozio per fare incetta di set di Eroi, di oggetti globali e degli ultimi tesori in evidenza. Crea canali di chat riservati ai membri.

Invita i tuoi amici, i tuoi nemici o chi preferisci O non invitare nessuno! Puoi creare un canale solo per te. Per il volere della natura e le ferite di battaglia, le terre intorno al fiume sono cambiate. Dal principio della battaglia alla distruzione dell'Antico, gli Eroi si scontrano per ottenere un breve controllo sulle energie mistiche che appaiono vicino alle anse del fiume.

Ora un nuovo potere ha assunto la forma di una runa. In cambio di una piccola offerta, ottieni la benedizione delle fate. Ottieni la forza e la portata di un domatore di Viverne. La Lente Eterea aumenta il mana e la resistenza ai danni magici di chi la porta, garantendogli inoltre una maggiore rigenerazione della salute. L'Artiglio di Ferro fa parte della lista degli strumenti essenziali per la battaglia, combinando gli effetti della Lama della Repressione con un bonus armatura. Stufi di osservare lo scontro da lontano, tre Eroi si uniscono al campo di battaglia.

Le creature della foresta hanno ampliato il loro territorio. Due campi neutrali dei creep sono stati aggiunti alla mappa, uno vicino al negozio segreto dei Radiant, uno vicino a quello dei Dire. Con questa nuova aggiunta di oro ed esperienza da tenere in considerazione, la battaglia per le risorse assume una forma completamente nuova.

Quando la battaglia cambia il suo corso, un Eroe saggio sa come cambiare con essa. Consulta le note di aggiornamento qui sotto per la lista completa delle modifiche apportate. Sputa una palla di fuoco sul terreno, incendiando l'area bersagliata in un raggio di per 10 secondi. Infligge 85 danni al secondo. Nasal Goo is no longer targeted, instead it applies Goo to all enemies around you in AoE when casted.

Lasts 4 seconds. Cannot target Roshan. Ministuns for 0. Marksmanship now causes her attacks to splinter on the target and split into two arrows affecting two random units in a radius. Primary target still takes full damage.

Causes time to be frozen on all enemy abilities, causing their cooldowns to make no progress while they have this debuff. Ghost Ship now drags enemies within a AoE of it towards the crash site. It now starts from where you are, rather than behind you, lands in the same position it normally would have. Enemies are still able to perform actions while being pulled by the Ghost Ship.

Works similiar to Drow Ranger's Gust knockback. Note: An entangled hero will not be able to move still. Spirit Bear also has this ability, but the cooldown is shared with your hero. Changes Empower to be an allied hero aura. Affects ranged heroes for half cleave values and causes them to deal splash damage around the target in a AoE. Astral Imprisonment now deals damage to enemies in an area around the target when it ends. The target itself will also take damage, if it is an enemy.

Affects a area. You are only hurt once by this AoE with Scepter. He attacks once when phasing out and then once per second while being phased out.

Impostare utorrent 3/4 2/3 what is common denominator billy talent greatest hits tpb torrent

Un frammento dello stesso potere primordiale degli Antichi, Zet il Guardiano degli Archi Arc Wardenha promesso di porre fine allo scontro tra Radiant e Dire, facendoli riappacificare o annientandoli entrambi.

Il palazzo del marchese del grillo torrent Mummius censores locaverunt imponendos; basilicam post argentarias novas et forum piscatorium circumdatis tabernis quas vendidit in privatum; That this passage refer to pons Aemilius is generally accepted see, Le Gall ,84; Gazzola See also the detailed description go here Pellandra, of the Roman fishery at Santa Marinella. Leonardo and Poggio del Molino at the northern edge of the Baratti Gulf. The Etruscan inland emporion at Doganella had controlled the trade at this important stretch of territory between North and South Etruria. The existence of this second harbor which is well fitted in the words of Strabo, is contrasted by the silence in the It.
Impostare utorrent 3/4 2/3 what is common denominator The exactness with which this source describe several useful landingpoints which are of both topographic commercial value is remarcable. After Lorium, however, the course indicated I believe that this route more directly reflects the original Etruscan coast-road with Roman emendations. Operating system: Mac OS X This little man is going to be ready to take on anything of Star Wars Baby Yoda hug Los Angeles Lakers logo shirt with his mom and her wisdom behind him. At this junction a number of selce 84 paving blocks have been scattered about. Frontin de limitibus 31 attests the possibility to differentiate the centuriated limites between neighbour colonies, but in the case of Luna-Pisa the land division was not distinct between them, which also led to a dispute of the border. Mortar was employed with the nenfro, but not with the red tufa, nor between the voussoirs.
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As recently as the sorting was elegant. I could sort by status downloading at the top, followed by seeding, then queued seeding, and finally finished. Then within those categories, the downloading was sorted ordinally and the rest alphabetically within status. Now I can only either choose sort by status or by name but not both at the same time.

I suppose if I did not use UT as a sort of index for all my completed torrents this would not be an issue but it is a showstopper for me no matter what other improvements may be present. Also, force checking seemed to just hang at 0 but I did not stick around long to determine the exact conditions that brought that on.

I had seen enough. I am so thankful that I got into the habit of doing a complete backup of the install folder just before upgrading. It is so easy to revert then. I am normally a willing beta tester but I think I will just sit on my hands for now. I must keep reminding myself that newer is not always better I t was fine in previously versions. How to fix? I think utorrent holds the record for the most adware in any single program.

One of which is malware conduit. Its not like they use the money to improve the program anyway. I see, so the devs work for free There is no devs. If there was a single programmer on the utorrent team then it would have been miles better then it is now. Remove the ads and make it open source so I can help fix this broken ad-ridden program. Recommended Posts.

Posted February 20, Link to comment Share on other sites More sharing options Replies 1. Previous list 3. Great news One thing to report: just upgraded to v3. Then I have to kill utorrent. But, if utorrent is already running, then clicking to open a. Morganna Posted February 20, GunPowder Posted February 20, Great news Beasly Posted February 20, In the right-click menu, "start" is grayed out, pressing "stop" does nothing, and selecting pause changes the status to "finished".

They also started downloading data. Both the stop and pause buttons do nothing - the status remains at "Checked xx. The following is different from previous versions, it may be a feature: When re-checking multiple torrents, they are not re-checked in download " " order. The order appears random to me. Annoying implication: Even when using "move up queue" to move a torrent all the way to the top, the torrent that starts rechecking after the current one finishes rechecking is not the one that was moved to the top, but a random one.

TurboGamer Posted February 20, Can we please have an option on where we want to install utrorrent! What's the point in that? Delfinok Posted February 20, And, actually, directory mapper doesn't work at all. Joh Posted February 21, Posted February 21, Dimonira Posted February 22, Posted February 22, That's part of the window :. Upload document Create flashcards. Flashcards Collections.

Documents Last activity. Fractions, like people, work well together when they share something in common. In the case of fractions, you must find a common denominator— the bottom number of a fraction—in order to add, subtract or accurately compare a group of fractions. The idea of the least common denominator is to find the smallest denominator shared by a group of dissimilar fractions.

Once you have found the least common denominator for a group of fractions, you must write the fractions so they display a new numerator, or top number, to correspond to the new denominator. Keep in mind that fractions can be written different ways and still have the same value. For example, 35 can 6 be rewritten as 10 or 27 45 without changing the value of the fraction. You can actually work with any denominator common to two or more fractions, but finding the least common denominator allows you to calculate with smaller numbers.

Since 3 does not evenly divide into 5 , 5 is not the least common denominator. Note: The denominator is the bottom number in a fraction. Write the following fractions with their least common denominator. You can check your answers on page The result may not be the least common denominator and you may end up working with large, awkward numbers, but this method provides speedy results.

For example, for the fractions 5 and 8 , you 7 9 could multiply 7 x 9 to give you a common denominator of

Impostare utorrent 3/4 2/3 what is common denominator alma cogan discography torrents

Part 4/5-Adding and subtracting mixed and improper fractions(common denominators)

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