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Therefore, the results should not be considered as accurate calendar dates, but rather as approximations. Broadening Horizons 61 For each sherd from the HASIV section the age results were quite reproducible, with standard errors in the range of 4. The standard errors on the results obtained for the FAR-sherds, alternatively, ranged from 15 to The screening results are summarized in Figs.

Radiocarbon dating of organic material Prof. Grootes of the Leibniz laboratory in Kiel performed the radiocarbon dating. Finally, the iron-graphite mix was pressed into a sample container for AMS measurements. The 14C-concentrations of the samples were obtained by comparing the simultaneously acquired 14C, 13C, and 12C contents with those of the CO2- standard Oxalic Acid standard II , and by subtracting the zero effect as measured in samples of fossil coals.

The total uncertainty on the 14 C-result incorporates the uncertainties arising from statistics, the stability of the AMS-equipment, and the subtracted zero effect. For the first two the largest of the internal derived from statistics and external observed variety uncertainty was adopted.

The amount of carbon that could be extracted from sample KIA was larger than is necessary for precision dating. The amount of organic carbon extracted from samples KIA and , in contrast, was rather small 0. Therefore, the ages measured for these samples are sensitive to very small quantities of fluvial transported C in 13 Stuiver and Polach, Discussion Reporting of 14C Data. It is perhaps worth pointing out that these G13C-values also represent the effects of the graphitisation and of isotopic fractioning in the AMS-equipment.

Therefore, the values are not directly comparable with G13C- values that have been measured in a CO2-mass spectrometer. The analyses were carried out on quartz grains dispersed on the inner 7 mm of 9. The luminescence was detected through a 7.

The suitability of the SAR measurement conditions was confirmed through dose recovery tests. Broadening Horizons 63 spectrometry was used for the determination of the natural dose rate. Measurements of present day water contents in sediments from the immediate surroundings of the samples indicate saturation from about 3 m deep. Hence, it was assumed that the samples were near saturation over the entire burial period. The contribution of cosmic radiation was calculated following Prescott and Hutton.

All other samples exhibit disequilibria in the U decay chain. For these samples, the present-day dose rate was assumed to have prevailed throughout the entire period of burial based on the findings by Olley et al. Uncertainties on the luminescence ages were calculated following the error assessment system as outlined in Aitken. This limited the number of analyses that could be carried out for these samples. About 3 mg of pure quartz could be extracted from sample GLL ; i. The lack of sufficient datable material prevented us from obtaining a reliable optical age for this sample.

For the sake of completeness, however, we also included the results of these analyses in Table II. The silt-sized quartz extracted from sample GLL was dim. Only ca. As a consequence, the reproducibility of the De determinations was poor.

It can be noted that, on average, a good dose recovery could be achieved for this sample, albeit with a relatively large uncertainty Table II. Such non-uniformities in the sediments might cause heterogeneity in the environmental beta dose rate, and introduce additional scatter in the results. Finally, it should be noted that the depositional context for all samples is alluvial. Owing to the possibility of incomplete resetting of the OSL clock in such an environment, the optical ages should, therefore, be considered as maximum ages.

Therefore, the OSL-dates should be younger than the radiocarbon date. The date achieved for the silty unit at ca. The dated clayey silt at 3. The sandy silt at ca. But within analytical uncertainties, the date should be considered consistent with the other dates. As noticed above, the OSL ages should, by way of precaution, be considered as maximal ages.

Typical cross-stratified coarse sands with occasional clay rip-up clasts visible in the larger exposure at HAMIII suggest that, between ca. The evidence indicates a relatively steady stream-flow. Recent anthracological research at the nearby archaeological site Tell Mozan indicated that open oak park woodland was present within this area between ca. A denser tree cover, by increasing rainfall interception and inhibiting runoff, may have resulted in steadier perennial flow and raised groundwater tables.

Further evidence from northwestern Iraq confirms that raised water tables occurred between and BC. The abstraction of water for irrigation might have played a role in diminution of stream flow within this rather modest-sized river. Human activity also might have contributed significantly to aggradation of the floodplain. The plain was intensively inhabited during the middle of the third millennium BC,30 and the delivery of fine sediments in the shape of plough wash could have been greater than the flow could remove.

Another possible cause for the deposition of fine-grained sediments at HAM after BC relates to drier climatic conditions at the end of the third millennium BC. This might have caused a reduced stream-flow,31 with a possible impact on human societies in this area. It has been intensively debated why settlement evidence is so scarce within this area towards the end of the third millennium BC. Dalfes et al. This age estimate was obtained using only a single aliquot of quartz grains; its reliability is questionable, as one simply cannot decide whether or not the result is an outlier.

Additionally, it is most likely that the sample was transported over only a very short distance during a flash flood event. Hence, the sample probably experienced insufficient exposure to daylight for the OSL clock to be completely reset. Therefore, we refrain ourselves from deducing any interpretations from the result obtained for sample GLL However, several redeposited sherd-like artefacts were found within the poorly sorted gravel.

As the earliest pottery in Mesopotamia normally dates to the Ceramic Neolithic from ca. The sherd-like artefacts, however, are not as strong as normal sherds and have a strange brittle and dark organic-rich inner content with a baked outer layer. Whether they do represent sherds or not, this kind of technological advancement in pyrotechnology is usually ascribed to the Holocene. As previously mentioned, this age is possibly an overestimate owing to contamination with older carbon.

Moreover, it is unsure whether or not this fleck is in situ or represents redeposited organic material. From about a depth of 3 until 0. TL-screening of these sherds yielded age estimates in the range of approximately 4. Some care is required with the evaluation and interpretation of these TL-estimates because the composition of the dark brittle content on the inner side of the sherd-like artefacts is unknown. Consequently, it is also not clear how it may affect the accuracy of the TL age estimates.

It is clear that the chronology for this site still needs a lot of improvement before any relation between landscape evolution and settlement can be established. Additional samples are being investigated at the time of writing. Radiocarbon dates on A-horizons represent maximal ages for the sediment that buries the A-horizon. However, the 14C age is significantly older than the luminescence ages.

This could imply that the organic-rich layer represents a redeposited soil, which is supported by the apparent abrupt boundary with the units below. The possibility that the 14C age is an overestimate due to contamination with older fluvially transported carbon prevents us from drawing a more solid conclusion.

Moreover, it is well-known that soils are one of the most difficult materials to date using the radiocarbon method. An OSL-sample above the organic rich layer provided a date of 2. Therefore, a period of ca. A sherd TL-screened to approximately 2.

Incipient soil formation on the present day surface confirms that at least some time has passed since the uppermost sediments have been deposited. More precisely, an A-horizon developed and carbonate accumulation took place to a depth of ca. Soil formation studies within this area suggest that this degree of soil formation might correlate to about years of soil formation. There was still water within the Wadi Jaghjagh and Jarrah, but probably less vigorously than during the Bronze Age.

Although this reduced streamflow may result from climatic drying during the first millennium BC as indicated by isotopic research from stalactites from Soreq Cave in Israel 36, it may alternatively result from the development of large-scale irrigation systems. At this stage of archaeological research, however, it is impossible to investigate the impact of anthropogenic activity on the landscape for this time period because the settlement history is insufficiently known.

Indeed, although it is often mentioned that the region was deserted during this period37 this is contradicted by a recent survey in the Tell Brak area. Comparison of the TL-screening results with those obtained through optical and radiocarbon dating, however, demonstrates the usefulness of the technique for gaining preliminary chronological insight.

The main advantages of the method are that the time of sediment deposition is dated, and that it is applicable to situations where organic material, suitable for dating, is lacking. The main potential disadvantage is incomplete resetting of the luminescence clock, which leads to age overestimations. However, in the two case studies where we could apply optical dating it offered stratigraphically consistent results, which were in agreement with archaeological and geomorphological expectations.

We therefore conclude that, in the investigated sediments, the OSL clock appears to have been adequately reset. Radiocarbon dating is the more established method and yields the most precise ages. The main limitations to its usefulness, however, concern the possibility of contamination with older carbon and the difficulty in relating the age of the organic sample to the actual date of sediment deposition. Ideal was the situation where in-situ organic material intercalated between fluvial deposits could be dated, as was the case in the HAM section.

The three case studies illustrate the site to site variability in usefulness and reliability of each method. We conclude that the combinatory application of the three techniques offers the most promising and most robust approach in research programs aiming to establish and improve the chronology of fluvial sequences in Syria.

We are convinced that this conclusion holds for other areas of the Near East as well. Broadening Horizons 69 The fluvial chronological evidence suggests that the presently dry Jaghjagh was a meandering stream with a relatively steady flow between the mid-fourth to mid-third century BC.

Sometime after the mid-third millennium BC, possibly towards the end of the third millennium BC, stream velocities decreased in the investigated sequences. This might relate to climatic drying at the end of the third millennium BC. Further OSL-dating will make it possible to establish whether or not the sequences support other evidence of drier climatic conditions. This, in turn, might then contribute to the discussion on the impact of climatic drying on human societies.

The investigated Khanzir sediments reflect more the flashy intermittent regime of this stream — like it still is today — with flash flood evidence pre-dating ca. Further dating is necessary in order to correlate it with the settlement history. Between about and BC clay sedimented at Farsouk Kabir. At this stage of our investigation it is impossible to relate this phase of landscape development to anthropogenic activity, since little is known about the settlement history and economy for this period.

Our sincere thanks also go to the Directorate General of Antiquities and Museums, Syria, who kindly permitted the survey and allowed export of sediment and sherd samples. Many thanks are also due to the Belgische Stichting Roeping to support this vocational project. Grootes from the Leibniz Laboratory in Kiel dated the radiocarbon samples. Vandenberghe wishes to thank N. Seelen and J. Temmerman for their assistance with the sample preparation for luminescence analysis, J.

Adamiec, G. Aitken, M. Thermoluminescence Dating. London: Academic Press, An Introduction to Optical Dating. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Alexandrovskiy, A. Bar-Matthews, M. Issar and N. Brown, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Besonen, M and M. Cremaschi, Geomorphological Field Survey Report.

Tell Leilan, June URL: research. Andersen, G. Duller and A. Courty, M. Dalfes, H. Kukla and H. Weiss, eds. Heidelberg: Springer, Deckers, K. Sanderson and J. Frechen, M. Schweitzer and A. French, C. Geoarchaeology in Action. Studies in Soil Micromorphology and Landscape Evolution. New York: Routledge, Broadening Horizons 71 Hossain, S. Thesis, Ghent University, Ghent, Kerbe, J.

Talence: University of Bordeaux Press, Lewin, J. Macklin and J. Lewin, M. Woodward, Rotterdam: Elsevier, Lyonnet, B. Bartl and R. Hauser, Berlin: Reimer, Paris : ERC, Macklin, M. Mejdahl, V. Meijer, D. A Survey in Northeastern Syria.

Istanbul: Nederlands Historisch- Archeologisch Instituut, Murray, A. S and A. Olley, J. Murray and R. Peltenburg, E. Rouault and M. Prescott, J. Rees-Jones, J. Stuiver, M. Vandenberghe, D. Thesis, University of Ghent, Kasse, S. Hossain,, F. De Corte, P. Van den haute, M. Fuchs and A. Eichler and M. Tall al-Hamidiya 4.

Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis Waters, M. Wegener, B. URL: www. Lemcke and M. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems. URL: www-oi. Settlement Development in the North Jazira, Iraq. A study of the Archaeological Landscape.

Warminster: Aris Phillips, Uncertainties are 1s. The uncertainties mentioned with the De, dose recovery and dosimetry data are random; the uncertainties on the ages are the overall uncertainties, which include the systematic errors. All uncertainties represent 1s. The number of aliquots used for De determination and for the dose recovery tests is given between brackets.

This points at an incomplete elimination of feldspars from the quartz extract. To minimize the contribution from feldspars to the measured luminescence, this sample was analysed by stimulation with infrared light prior to each OSL measurement. Maritime society is distinguished having a role in trade, communications, contacts and economic and political activities.

Nonetheless it is acknowledged here that in order to approach thoroughly past practices in Aegean prehistory, an appreciation of the maritime landscape is essential. This article will present the results of an initial study into these human- maritime interactions. For the purpose of this article, the area of the Mediterranean to be discussed comprises the SW Aegean and central and southern Italy. The intention is to examine its coastline and the extent to which there are safe anchorages and harbourages that could have supported a maritime exchange network in the Late Bronze Age.

The diversity of the landscape across this area with the multiple geotectonic features ranging from extensive alluviation Helos plain to uplift West Crete as well as the important archaeological sites found within this area Pylos, Chania provide us with good examples of the combination of different categories of data and the results that such an approach may produce. This data should form the baseline for further investigation and research on the coastal settlement pattern and the basis on which we should try to understand the thalassocentric character of the Mycenaean era.

Aims — scope — methodology In the course of , I conducted a survey of the coastline of West Crete, Kythera, the Messenia and Laconia looking at the coastal archaeological record of the LBA. For my survey I used GPS, nautical charts and geographical maps, photographs and my own observations on features such as promontories, protected harbours, anchorages, landmarks and seamarks.

In this way I gained an appreciation of the local 1 Ivrou and Chalkioti, forthcoming. Broadening Horizons 77 maritime landscape, a key element when trying to approach past maritime activities. In pursuit of such insights, a spatial and chronological analysis of the known archaeological sites was prepared consisting of a gazetteer of coastal sites.

Geomorphology and archaeology of southwestern Aegean Many geologists have focused their research interests on the solution of practical and theoretical problems facing archaeologists in the initial recovery of data and subsequent analysis.

However, the publication of such geological contributions has most often been limited to appendices in formal excavation reports of a particular project or as short technical reports, often in highly specialised journals. Consequently, a scholar in either of the two disciplines had no general reference work illustrating the wide range of application of geological techniques to archaeology of this particular region for the prehistoric era.

The coastal deltaic regions have been more carefully studied as they shed the most light on the nature of geomorphic and possible climatic changes over the past years. As is evident from these surveys, the distribution of coastal settlements forms a vivid part of the maritime landscape during the Bronze Age.

The overall settlement pattern of the time is marked by a rather sudden increase on or near the coasts during the BA period. After the Bronze Age, for example, the coasts of Crete were abandoned. This is particularly so in the complex interplay of physical forces in coastal change over the short term of the Holocene.

Since BP the sea level has risen towards its present position, rapidly at first, then slower ranging from 7. Paleogeographical reconstructions of Aegean archaeological sites, Science ; Pirazzoli, Uplift of ancient Greek coastal sites: study, methods and results. For these reasons and due to the lack of systematic research along the coasts by archaeologists and geomorphologists, potential man-made harbours in this area have not been identified despite the fact that the archaeological record both on the Greek mainland and on the islands provides evidence for contacts and exchange between the two regions.

Site map of the Helos plain and close up photo of Gythion harbour area and Kranae island. These units may be geographically closely related and bear broad similarities in their geological background, climatic features and cultural history, all of which have shaped the cultural landscape.

They all have however a distinctive character generated by the interconnection of the above-mentioned parameters and the individualities of each particular region. They form a diverse landscape with indented coastlines and mountainous interior. Some case studies taken from each region are now presented to illustrate the potentials and difficulties that have arisen from my survey.

Vol: I The Mainland and the Islands. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology. The settlements around that plain are numerous but mainly small; while they used to be coastal or near the coast, particularly during the Early and Middle Bronze Age, they are now further inland Fig. There appears to be a hierarchy of settlements into major and subordinate sites according to scale and size. The most prominent of the settlements appears to be Ayios Stephanos which lies on the cross roads of the routes from the Sparta plain via Krokeai and from the Gythion coastal strip.

Ayios Stephanos, probably a promontory jutting into the sea during the Bronze Age, is a conspicuous rocky limestone hill on the eastern end of a spur projecting into the Eurotas plain, now 20 km from the sea. The prehistoric settlement occupied an area about m in diameter. In front of the anchorage, towards the SW there is the islet of Kranae, connected with the mainland today via a bridge, but formerly with a low land bridge Fig.

This small islet together with the promontory of Mavrovouni on the SW, are good landmarks when approaching 9 Hope-Simpson, Mycenaean Greece, Vol: I The Mainland and the Islands, Broadening Horizons 81 the harbour during daylight Fig.

There are indications that Gythion was a major centre of the area in Mycenaean times. On the islet of Kranae itself, however, several Mycenaean LH III sherds, worn and of poor quality, have been identified on the western and central parts, over perhaps half of the surface of the island which measures about m E-W by m N-S. The island has a mainly hilly appearance and therefore provides good landmarks.

It is in very close proximity to the Peloponnesian coast and the island of Elafonissos. The west coast of the island is sparsely occupied, and that corresponds to the fact that no suitable anchorage has been found on this side of the island Fig. Avlemonas is an example of a peninsula or promontory with adjacent sandy beach onto which ships could be dragged. The beach on the west side is low and very rocky Fig.

The river of Skadeia drains into the bay and there has consequently been extensive silting. This area is considered the only well-protected harbour of the island during the Bronze Age. Kapsali is a natural double harbour on the south of Kythera.

Archaeological evidence for the Mycenaean era comes from a tholos tomb near Lioni Fig. The harbour is very well protected and is used as the second harbour of the island even today. The site is located at the crossroads from Crete to the Mainland and from East to West Mediterranean. It may have been a potentially high traffic harbour in prehistory. The survey which I conducted on the promontories of the harbour of Kapsali both inner and outer brought to light pottery and buildings that need to be investigated further.

History and survey of the submerged remnants. Broadening Horizons 83 West Crete Crete, like the rest of the Aegean region, shows much evidence of earlier sea levels differing from the present level. Kydonia is another example of a peninsula that allowed dragging ships onto the sandy beach.

The site overlooks the modern harbour of Chania, lying on the southeast shore of the open north-facing Gulf of Chania Fig. To the east it looks to the Akrotiri peninsula, while on the west it faces the islet of Thodorou. The waters are relatively shallow. The area is unprotected from the North winds, and the approach to the harbour is difficult when there are strong onshore winds.

Architecture of almost all periods from Final Neolithic till the present day can be found at the site. Most of what is exposed however belongs to the LM IB period, ca. In the Splanzia quarter, SE of the Kastelli hill, part of a large Neopalatial building has been excavated.

After various reconstructions, the building was finally destroyed at the end of LM IB. This is so far the most important building of the Minoan town of Kydonia whose function was either a civic or palatial sanctuary. Phalasarna: The Roman port of Phalasarna was constructed at the base of the Gramvousa peninsula, a large block of Jurassic limestone.

The peninsula terminates to the south in a series of low hills, mostly composed of Miocene limestone and marl, part of an ancient graben. This area was uplifted in the fifth or sixth century AD by about seven meters, possibly during a single earthquake. Evidence for this uplift can be seen in the harbour, which is now dry and far above sea level in the floor of the ancient quarries to the south of the town. These quarries must have originally been close to sea level.

There are also well- developed notches in the cliffs and raised wave-cut platforms around Cape Kastri. Another old sea level stand can be seen at an altitude of about 15 m. If we consider that Moody found traces of a prehistoric shrine on the mountain opposite the site, then we can reconsider the topography of the area for the Mycenaean era. Can we reasonably presume to the existence here of a pattern like that on Kythera at Avlemonas with the settlement and harbour near a fertile coastal plain?

Further investigation should explore this hypothesis. Nonetheless the position of the site, next to the Roman port, makes it a very promising one for further investigations. Even if this is not a harbour, it could have been a stopover point. Broadening Horizons 85 Fig. The arrow marks the area of Phalasarna. This small island is one of the three islands of the Phlegrean Archipelago. The island is part of a volcanic crater and during prehistory was connected to Santa Margerita on Procida.

The coastline is very depressed with embayments which continue below the sea level. The presence of Mycenaean pottery imported from the Peloponnese at more than one location on the island indicates that Mycenaeans were evidently using this base in the course of their trading activities in the West. Underwater researches have pointed out Mycenaean ladders cut in the rock that allowed access to the island from three points around it.

The only striking difference between these ports and those in the Aegean is that these were naturally well fortified and ladders were used to access the island and its caves. This is a type of port that is not encountered in the southwestern Aegean because the site was not a Mycenaean base;22 it was merely visited by Mycenaeans on numerous occasions.

Conclusions The coastal settlements presented above are part of a landscape study which aims to examine how different cultural systems interacted with broadly similar environments, resulting in human responses that show marked variations in time and space. There are many ways in which human communities can choose to exploit their landscapes depending upon a wide range of variables within natural and cultural environments.

Besides changing settlement patterns through time there is differentiation in the utilization of maritime landscapes. Not all coastal sites have the same degree of maritime interaction. The coastal location by itself does not indicate that people drew the basis of their subsistence from the sea see, for example, the case of Helos plain. Broadening Horizons 87 of settlements in such areas. There are coastal sites involved with the sea circumstantially as a complement to their subsistence strategies fishing, for example , and others that have a closer and more intense relation to it or are part of sea networks in varying degrees Chania.

Regarding the future of this preliminary research, there is first and foremost a need for a systematic coastal and underwater survey of submerged sites and harbours in the areas I have discussed. This will enable the reconstruction to be made of sea-level changes during the past two millennia in the southwestern Aegean and Central Mediterranean, with a particular focus on the geotectonic and alluvial depositions along the coast as well as the fertile integration of the archaeological data.

When that information has been gathered it will be possible to tackle questions concerning the nature of LBA harbours and coastal interaction, the overall concept of harbour sites and what we regard as a LBA harbour. It will also be possible to anticipate the questions relating to how human communities decided to increase the intensity with which they exploited one particular type of environment - coastal - during the Mycenaean era.

Only then will we be able to understand the maritime character of these sites and discuss issues of maritime cultural landscape and how it was conceptualized during the Mycenaean era. Acknowledgements I am mostly grateful to my supervisor Dr. Jones for his support and help during my research and for the fruitful discussions we have had. References Andreadakis-Vlazakis, M. Broodbank, C. British School at Athens 94 : Cavanagh, W.

Crouwel, R. Catling and G. British School at Athens Supplementary vol. Chryssoulaki, S. Laffineur and E. Athens, Alcock, J. Bennet, Y. Lolos, C. Shelmerdine and E. Hallager, E. The Master Impression. Heikell, R. Greek waters pilot. Higgins, R. A geological companion to Greece and the Aegean. New York: Cornell University Press, Hope Simpson, R. Mycenaean Greece. Park Ridge: Noyes Press, Flemming, N. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences , no.

Ivrou, V. Chalkioti, forthcoming. Napa — Cyprus August Kalogerakou, P. Kraft J. Aschenbrenner and G. Kraft, J. Kayan and S. Rapp and J. Gifford, New Haven and London, Marazzi, M. Napoli, Moody, J. The making of the Cretan Landscape. Broadening Horizons 89 Pirazzoli, P. Fitch Laboratory Occasional paper 7, edited by S. Stiros and R. Jones, Exeter: Short Run Press, Rapp, G. Aschenbrenner, eds. Excavations at Nichoria in southwest Greece.

Volume 1: Site, Environs and Techniques. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, Scoufopoulos-Stavrolakes, N. Campaigns to acquire stone in antiquity, from thousands of local, regional and distant quarries were partly statements of an elite to key places of primary production of prestigious stone, but also as a means for obtaining raw material for everyday construction and utilitarian products.

These landscapes can not only enhance our understanding of technological development and the lives of the non-elite in antiquity, but also provide rare insights into the political and ideological ambitions of an elite that drove resource exploitation to such heights. Most studies have focused on stone and quarry characterisation and interpretation of extraction technologies, and only recently broader surveys and excavations have been carried out.

The most comprehensive studies have been undertaken in the large Roman quarry landscapes in the Eastern Desert. Such studies have added significantly to our understanding of stone production, logistics and aspects of the social context of these operations.

Yet, conceptualising these sites within broader aspects of landscape studies and their recognition as major heritage sites is still in its infancy. Moreover, for the majority of lay people, such landscapes remain visually and conceptually obscure. The failure to recognise ancient quarry landscapes as constituting major heritage sites has also made them largely invisible to national and local authorities. Hence, the majority still remain undocumented, unregistered and, with a few exceptions, legally unprotected as archaeological sites.

As a consequence, these landscapes are disappearing at an alarming rate, from actions such as modern development projects and urban expansion, modern quarrying operations, looting, vandalism and tourist pressure, natural hazards and weathering. I: Topography and Quarries. However, there are also major differences in between them; some may be closely associated to the construction of a town, representing local sources of raw material gradually being obliterated and hidden under the expanding town itself.

In such cases, the quarrying represents a limited stage within the continuous development of an urban landscape. Still others may have developed over thousands of years, displaying continuous extraction from prehistory to the present time. Hence, there are important differences related to the context in which the quarrying took place and its relation to other human activities; was it the need of readily available construction materials, trade or search for prestige qualities that were the driving forces?

Quarries are situated in geological resources of specific value and in order to understand the process of stone exploitation, knowledge of these resources, their geometry and quality, is essential. The geological landscape forms the background of any quarry landscape, where the distribution of the exploitable rocks and the morphology define the framework from which the human made features evolve. The meeting between quarrying technology, human organisation and geology creates unique landscapes.

Stone acquisition may be viewed from a purely technical perspective - or not. Could quarrying of stone have been initiated by or associated with features of symbolic or religious nature? Could, in fact, quarry landscapes have ritual dimensions leaving imprints not obviously understandable from a technical extraction point of view? For instance, burials in quarries, rock art and inscriptions should not necessarily be viewed isolated from the stone acquisition, indeed there might be connections related to past perceptions of the landscape and the natural resources within them, such meanings being extremely difficult to access in the present.

Due to the fact that most quarry landscapes are complex and can be interpreted from different angles, the need for multi-disciplinary approaches cannot be overestimated. This complexity will be illustrated with three examples from Egypt. It is situated in the easternmost part of the Sahara - covering nearly km2 of flat, hyper-arid desert, some 60 km west of Lake Nasser river Nile and the famous Abu Simbel temple in the extreme south of Egypt. In the third and fourth millennium BC, the quarry was used for extraction of stone for now world- famous sculptures and thousands of smaller funerary objects, especially vessels Fig.

Ian Shaw. Chephren Gneiss occurs as large and small inclusions in granitic rocks, resulting in a highly irregular outcrop pattern, and causing a similarly uneven and scattered distribution of quarries. Almost all the outcrops of Chephren Gneiss have been exploited to some degree, and a total of small and large quarries have been mapped Fig. Life-size statue of King Chephren left and vessel right. The quarrying of the Chephren Gneiss has uniformly targeted loose boulders of gneiss on the terrain surface, formed by in situ, spheroidal weathering over long periods of time.

Such boulder landscapes are common in siliceous rocks in the region, and before the quarrying started the terrain must have been covered with clusters of rounded gneiss boulders. The gneiss boulders were worked with stone hammers and axes from local sources, and also fire-setting was partially applied in the rough shaping of blocks. Essentially, the quarrying process transformed the rounded boulders into heaps of waste-rock, most of them forming circular heaps around the space where the blocks were situated Fig.

Thus, as seen from above, e. In addition to the extraction sites themselves, the quarry area comprises ramps for loading blocks, small camps and shelters, wells, cairns and other features related to the logistical side of quarrying and maintenance of the labour force. Chephren Gneiss was a prestigious stone in the Old Kingdom. Firstly, the rock is of particularly good quality for carving and sculpturing, secondly, the aesthetical appearance is attractive. Consequently, Chephren Gneiss combines the hardness and durability of granite with the beauty of marble.

Evidence from the consumption record suggests that the quarrying started as early as the Late Neolithic. Broadening Horizons 95 short-lived campaigns for specific purposes i. Chephren statues , as there is no evidence of permanent settlements in the area. It remains unknown if there ever existed a more permanent presence associated with vessel-production and trade.

Top; overview of the ancient quarries and related infrastructure on satellite image. Below; geological map. Broadening Horizons 97 Fig. The uniqueness of Chephren's Quarry is related to the fact that it presents, together with Widan el-Faras see below , the earliest evidence of prestigious stone acquisition from remote areas outside the Nile Valley in Antiquity, and until the last few years is extremely well preserved. The site is very rich in archaeological information, and only a minor part of that has been excavated.

Unfortunately, the site is severely threatened by the Toshka land reclamation and irrigation project under construction and even though proper registration 16 McHugh, Schaber, Breed and McCauley, Neolithic adaptation and the Holocene functioning of Tertiary palaeodrainages in Southern Egypt and Northern Sudan, 33; Pachur, and Hoelzmann, Late Quaternary palaeoecology and palaeoclimates of the Eastern Sahara, Widan el-Faras basalt quarry: a remote source for the pyramid complexes Widan el-Faras is located in the northern Faiyum desert, ca.

The basalt quarries are situated along the Gebel Qatrani escarpment and occur as an metre thick layer of Cenozoic Basalt flows17, capping a succession of soft sedimentary rocks. The basalt was used predominantly for pyramid temple construction in the fourth and fifth Dynasty mortuary temple floors of Khufu, Userkaf, Sahura Fig. One of the quarries was reopened in the Early Roman period Fig. Broadening Horizons 99 actual extraction areas and parts of the infrastructure were discovered by Harrell and Bown.

Thus, a more comprehensive picture has emerged, not only of the quarries themselves, but also of unique features related to transportation of the stone and organisation of the quarrying operations, such as roads, settlements, block storage areas and harbour facilities. The basalt blocks were taken from the quarries on the escarpment down to the plain on the southeast side immediately below, where they were collected for further overland transport to the Faiyum Depression and ancient shores of Lake Moeris for a description of Lake Moeris, see e.

Caton Thompson and Gardner. The use of the basalt came to a halt by the end of the fifth Dynasty, probably due to declining Nile floods, thus the basalt quarries may also be viewed as an indicator of climatic change during the Old Kingdom. Until recently, the quarry landscape was virtually undisturbed, except for the intensive weathering of the basalt, which during years has made many of the quarry faces and quarried basalt blocks almost unrecognisable.

Modern basalt quarrying has also contributed to the rapid disappearance of the ancient quarries, many are now completely destroyed. Furthermore, the rapid increase in desert tourism has put the site at risk, especially by 4WD vehicle traffic along and close to the ancient road. There are plans for integrating the basalt quarries into this extended WHS. Broadening Horizons The uniqueness of the Widan el-Faras quarry landscape is neither related to the actual quarry traces, which are highly weathered, nor to its size.

The most prominent and striking impression is given by its setting in a spectacular geological landscape25 and that it displays the whole organisation of an Old Kingdom remote quarrying operation, topped by the transport system. Moreover, this quarry landscape represents a marker of important events in the development of technologies; the oldest paved road in the world was constructed for this exploitation, and the basalt floors in the pyramid complexes display the oldest known evidence of sawing large blocks of hard stone.

Detailed surveys over the last few years, extending former, brief investigations28, and conducted under the auspices of the Supreme Council of Antiquities SCA , have revealed the large extension of the Aswan West Bank quarry landscape.

Broadening Horizons Nubian sandstone, ancient iron ore mines and additional silicified sandstone quarries on the east bank of the Nile Fig. Aswan town is located in the bottom right corner of the map. Seen from northeast. The silicified sandstones are found in the Um Barmil formation of the Nubian sandstone strata30, forming a hard, resistant layer capping the hills in the area.

Generally, the quarrying has targeted the hilltops, as well as loose boulders of silicified sandstone covering the slopes Figs. The Aswan West Bank quarry landscape is considerably more complex than the two other sites mentioned above.

First of all, the hard sandstones have been subject to quarrying not only during many periods, but also for several different purposes. Secondly, since the site is located near the Nile, there are numerous other archaeological sites in the area, with or without any connections to the stone quarrying operations.

The quarries themselves can be classified along two lines of characterisation: the desired final product monumental, utilitarian, building stone and the technology applied for extraction. In volume, the most important target for quarrying was production of grinding stones Fig.

The 30 Zaghloul, On a proposed lithostratigraphic subdivision for the Late Cretaceous in the Nile Valley; Klitzsch, Paleogeographical development and correlation of Continental strata former Nubian Sandstone in northeast Africa. Broadening Horizons technical properties of the stone were particularly sought after because silicified sandstone is hard and wear-resistant and therefore suitable for this purpose.

Generally, this grinding stone extraction activity has concentrated on releasing small pieces of silicified sandstone from boulders or solid bedrock by the use of stone hammers, and some places also by heating the rock face. Such quarries contain numerous small work areas, many broken or half finished pieces of grinding stones and only simple infrastructure donkey tracks rather than ramps and roads. The grinding stone quarrying appears to have a long history as far back as the Late Palaeolithic, indicated by the discovery of a grinding stone workshop in an year old settlement in Wadi Kubbaniya.

Since the grinding stone production continued at least into the Late Period and probably into the Graeco-Roman Period, the Aswan West Bank quarry landscapes could be one of the most long-lived stone extraction sites in the world. Quarrying of stone for monumental purposes has mainly focused on attractive coloured varieties of silicified sandstone at Gebel Gulab and Gebel Tingar, particularly yellow obelisks and purple types. The monumental stone quarrying is associated with a much more elaborated infrastructure than the grinding stone quarries, and the remnants of causeways, paved roads and cleared tracks for transporting heavy blocks to the Nile remains one of the most unique and spectacular aspects of the site.

Dating from the New Kingdom Period are quarries related to the extraction of obelisks Fig. Production evidence of the Pharaonic period suggests that the major extraction technologies used were a combination of fire setting and pounding with stone tools. Monumental stone was also extracted in later periods, and these quarries display wedge marks typical of the Greaco-Roman Period, indicating that splitting by wedges and working with iron tools now was the primary extraction technique.

Based on the quarry marks wedge marks, chiselled channels around blocks and epigraphic evidence, the majority of these quarries are interpreted to be of 31 Roubet, Report on Site E A Workshop for the Manufacture of Grinding Stones at Wadi Kubbaniya.

However, small-scale extraction of stone for local building purposes has probably been carried out during several periods, and in fact, even at the present time, there are several artisan quarries in operation within the site. In addition to the quarries and their related infrastructure, there are numerous occurrences of petroglyphs and rock-art from different periods, some of which have a clear relationship to the quarrying. As a quarry landscape, the Aswan West Bank is a good example of a large and complex site, containing numerous quarries from different periods, transport systems and epigraphic evidence.

Due to the stone quality and the proximal location of the site to the Nile, it can be viewed as a continuously evolving industrial landscape for almost years. Top; monumental stone quarry large block extraction on a hilltop. Below right: same area seen from satellite. Broadening Horizons Fig. Studies of them have produced new ideas about quarrying methods and ancient technology, social organisation of the quarrying and raised important questions regarding stone transportation.

Furthermore, they have established connections between the geological landscape and the exploitation of it. One of the most useful exercises has been the adoption of a landscape perspective to such sites, not only regarding the physical reshaping of a natural landscape, but also raising new questions about connections between resource exploitation and other human activity.

For instance, stone acquisition may relate to symbolism attached to certain stone properties, as well as the source, these perhaps having long cultural and historical antecedents. There are of course many areas of study related to ancient quarries, the ones presented in this paper represent only a fraction of their research potential, given that the majority of such sites around the Mediterranean remain unexplored, particularly from a multi-disciplinary approach.

The three case studies have yet another important aspect in common; they are all un-registered archaeological sites, they were all exceptionally well preserved a few years ago, but are now suffering acute threats from modern development. This adds a new dimension to the landscape perspective, namely the necessity of viewing the individual parts of these sites in a wider perspective. It also addresses the problem of assessing the significance of such sites: which parts of a quarry landscape is of particular value for preservation?

And how much of such a landscape can be sacrificed before the landscape dimension of it is lost? The experience from Egypt is by no means unique; all over the region and also in other parts of the world, quarry landscapes are lost at a high speed, most of them not even known to the public - and the heritage authorities. Acknowledgements We would like to express our thanks to Zaki Hawass and the Permanent Committee of the SCA for granting us permission to undertake the survey seasons.

We would also like to thank Magdy el-Ghandour, Mohi ed-Din Mustapha and Ibrahim el-Sayedi, for their generous co-operation and assistance with these surveys. Ian Shaw who directed the Chephren's Quarry surveys. We are particularly grateful for the Commission to believe in this project. References Aston, B. Harrell and I. Nicholson and I. Shaw, Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, Beadnell, H.

Bloxam, E. McDonald and C. Riggs, Oxford: Archeopress, Storemyr and T. Thassos, Greece, in press. G and P. Bown, T. Caton-Thompson, G. The Desert Fayum 2. London: Royal Anthropological Institute, Engelbach, R. A Preliminary Report. Harrell, J. Brown and M. Archaeological Geology in Ancient Egypt.

Hassan and Y. Heldal, T. Bloxam, P. Storemyr and A. Storemyr, E. Bloxam, I. Shaw and A. Thassos: Greece, in press. Hoffmeier, J. Klemm, D. Klemm and L. Klemm, R. Berlin- Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, Klitzsch, E. Broadening Horizons Mallory-Greenough, L. Greenough and J. Maxfield, V. Sixty-Seventh Memoir.

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