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Trelease, general collection ; Mr. Cochrane, miscellaneous rock-samples; Mr. Barrance and Mr. Graham, fossils from the Auckland District; and Mr. Park, F. Grayden, Mr. Martin, and others have also assisted me with the collection of specimens for the museum. A very interesting donation was made by Mr. Dunlop, manager of the Thames-Hauraki, and consisted of a pick, which has lain under water at a depth of ft.

The wooden handle is well preserved, while the steel has been eaten into ridges and furrows by the acid waters. A section of the old pump columns which have been under water for fifteen years was also obtained. The iron is thoroughly perished, and the inside of the pipe has a coating of dark-coloured carbonate of iron nearly 1 in. I have to gratefully acknowledge the willing and valuable assistance rendered by Messrs. During the following Government certificates were granted to the Thames School of Mines students after examination, and on proof of the necessary practical experience : Seven first-class mine-managers' certificates and five battery-superintendents' certificates.

In January, , I supervised the annual Government examination, for which twenty candidates presented themselves. Sixteen of these were Thames School of Mines students, three sitting for first-class mine-managers' certificates, two for first-class coal-mine managers' certificates, and eleven for battery-superintendents' certificates ; but the results ha?

The annual examinations were held during the second and third weeks of December, The papers, having been prepared and printed in Wellington, were forwarded in separate sealed packets to Mr. Coutts, Inspector of Mines, Thames, who brought them to the school each day at the specified hour of examination.

The examinations were supervised by myself and Mr. Sc, my assistant. The answers were sealed at the end of each examination, and then sent to Wellington for correction. The examiners were Mr. Hayes, Inspecting Engineer; Mr. Skey, Government Analyst; Mr. McKay, F. S,, Government Geologist; Mr. Pierard; and the Surveyor-General. The results were satisfactory, and are given in a tabulated statement below. One very encouraging feature was a large number of Saturday science pupils who presented themselves for examination, and most of whom obtained good marks.

It is from pupils of this class that in a few years the regular students of the school will be drawn, and the training they now receive will be of great value to them in their future studies. The following table shows the results of the late examinations:—. Name of Subject. First Term. Second Term. Third Term.

Registered students — General and mining geology Mineralogy and blowpipe Land- and mine-surveying Mathematics Mining and applied mechanics Metallurgy of gold and silver Practical chemistry Theoretical chemistry Practical assaying Saturday science class 76 55 35 45 Total attendance at classes Individual registered students 54 81 73 50 Total individual students Graham secured the School of Mines University scholarship with the high average of 85 per cent, in the eight subjects of examination.

The examination is a severe test, and as the conditions are not generally known I include a list of them in this report for publication. Graham showed great perseverance and application in his studies, and thoroughly deserves his success.

He also obtained the President's medal for the highest aggregate in all the subjects of examination, gaining 1, marks in thirteen subjects, an average of 83 per cent. It is pleasing to note that the students who have gained School of Mines scholarships have made and are making excellent progress. McLaren, who gained a scholarship in , and Mr.

Baker, who secured his in , each gained his B. Donovan, who received a scholarship in , acquitted himself with credit last year at the University of Otago, where he is now continuing his studies, along with Mr. Schools op Mines. Three scholarships at the. Otago University will be offered annually for competition by students attending schools of mines within the colony: one to students from the North Island, and two to students from the Middle Island—namely, one from the West Coast, and one from Otago.

The scholarships will be tenable for three years, or for such other period less than three years as may at the discretion of the Minister appear to be necessary. The scholarships will be open to all students as aforesaid who are not less than eighteen years of age on the day appointed for receiving applications, as stated in Eegulation 5, and who shall have attended regularly at any school of mines within the colony for not less than two years. The examinations will be held in the month of December in each year, on days which will be duly announced, at the Thames, Eeefton, and Dunedin.

No scholarships shall be awarded to any candidate who does not obtain 75 per cent, of the marks in each subject. Applications from candidates, accompanied by a fee of 10s. Candidates must present themselves for examination on the day fixed, as provided in Eegulation No. The examination-papers will be prepared by the examiners of the schools of mines at the Thames and Eeefton.

The Minister of Mines retains to himself the right of cancelling any scholarship should the holder attend irregularly, or be reported for idleness or bad conduct. Subject of Examination. First Class. Second Third Class. General and mining geology Pumping and winding Ventilation and explosives Mining and applied mechanics Theoretical chemistry senior Theoretical chemistry junior Practical chemistry senior Practical chemistry junior Practical assaying, dry senior Practical assaying, dry junior Practical assaying, wet senior Practical assaying, wet junior Name of Mine and District.

Description of Ore. Dry Weight of Ore. Assa; Gold. Assay-value of Ore per Ton. Bullion saved. Value pe Ounce. Sheet Anchor, Omahu Sheet Anchor Waitekauri King White quartz, with blue veins Grey quartz and red oxides of iron Brown quartz Mullock and rubble Brownish quartz, with blue veins White quartz and mullock O. White quartz I. White quartz II. Busty-coloured quartz Busty-coloured quartz Foliated quartz, with manganese Concentrates Concentrates chloridized During the year I have made a large number of determinations to ascertain the distribution of tellurium in the mines of the Hauraki Peninsula, and to find out whether its occurrence had any deleterious action on the recovery of the bullion by the ordinary processes.

Although I have located tellurium in a number of places and mines where it has not hitherto been recognised, I have been unable to obtain a high percentage in any sample of ore that I have analysed, and generally the tellurium was found in only minute quantities mixed with a comparatively large amount of base sulphides, so that its mode of combination could not be determined.

Its associates, however, are copper, gold, and silver in greater or less quantity. I found no tellurium in ore from Karangahake, Waihi, and Waitekauri, and certainly in the ore now being won in the mines of the Hauraki Peninsula there is little or no tellurium, and in no case is there sufficient to prejudicially affect the extraction of the gold. The chief places where I found tellurium are — Coromandel, in mispickel; Tapu, in copper- and iron-pyrites; Waiomo, in quartz containing a little copper-sulphides and rich silver-sulphides; Waiomo, in complex sulphide-ore; and at Tararu Creek.

I found a considerable amount of selenium associated with the silver and gold in certain of the Great Barrier ore. With regard to the molybdenite located by myself in Tararu Creek there is nothing fresh to report. In June I found among some of the samples of ore sent to me for determination indications of molybdenite, and, in consequence, proceeded up the Ohio Creek with Mr.

William Martin, and after some little search found an iron seam, about 1 ft. I have since found the mineral in small quantities in several other places in the same creek, but nowhere in sufficient quantity to mine, and practically no work has been done on the vein in which it was first discovered. From the Kawau Copper-mine, which is now being drained, Mr.

Baker has received a very interesting specimen of native copper. The copper occurs in tree-like masses made up of wellformed crystals, and is found on the mine timbers which have been lying under water. Notes on the Treatment op some op the Parcels in the Experimental Plant. The parcel of Monowai tailings was obtained from the ore treated at the Monowai battery by Mr. Gordon French. The analysis of the concentrated ore was as follows: SiO a , per cent.

According to instructions, the concentrated ore was treated by cyanide; but the extraction was unsatisfactory, while the consumption of cyanide was high. A much higher return was obtained by roasting with salt, washing to remove soluble salts of copper, and then cyaniding; and the result would have been still more satisfactory but for the presence of some coarse gold, which was not dissolved by the cyanide solution.

This process, however, is unsuitable owing to the cost. These latter could readily be treated by cyanide at small cost, and the concentrates would pay to ship to the smelter. Golden Belt. The ore consisted of flinty quartz and mullock. In both of these parcels the greater part of the gold is found along seams in the solid quartz, and while part of the gold is fine, and some of it very fine, and easily extracted by cyanide, about onequarter of the value occurs in particles of bullion too coarse for successful cyanidation.

Wet crushing and amalgamation of the coarser particles of bullion, followed by cyanide treatment, appears to be the most suitable process, but care is necessary to save the fine gold existing in the ore. A parcel of b. The above shows that, although parts of the reefs may well be treated by the cyanide process, coarser gold may at any time be met with which could not be saved by that process, and provision should therefore be made for amalgamating that portion.

Melted Bullion. Skeet Anchor. Various tests have been made on ton parcels from the mine, which is situated at Omahu. The reef lies nearly flat, is from 3 ft. The ore is brown quartz showing crystals and dark bands of silver-sulphide and some free gold, while occasionally a few filaments of native silver may be detected in the stone. Some of the quartz is of a glassy nature, and carries higher values, especially in silver, than the accompanying rubble. There is also a little iron-pyrites in the ore, but no great quantity.

The following assays indicate the relative values in corresponding samples of the glassy quartz and rubble : Glassy quartz— Gold, 12 oz. Bubble—Gold, soz. By hot pan-amalgamation with chemicals 96 per cent, of the gold, 70 per cent, of the silver, and 92 per cent, of the value can readily be obtained by careful treatment.

The remaining 3 per cent, of the value is in the very fine slimes which float away very readily in water. Cyanide treatment of these tailings is fairly successful, as 75 to 80 per cent, of the gold and silver can be extracted from them at small cost. Parcel 1, consisting of splintery quartz, with red streaks of iron-oxides, was dried, dry-crushed, sampled, and assayed.

The assay result was —Gold, 3oz. The presence of a considerable amount of iron-oxide made the percolation somewhat troublesome ; but on a working-scale, with suitable alterations in the method of treatment, a still higher extraction would be possible by the cyanide process. The second parcel also consisted of splintery quartz, with seams of red oxide of iron. It was dried, sampled, and assayed, with the following result: Gold, loz. The consumption of cyanide for both parcels was small, and the cost of cyanide treatment for these ores would be low.

The gold occurred in a state of fine division, and was readily taken up by weak cyanide solution. A certain amount of slimes forms when these ores are crushed owing to the presence of oxide of iron, and the slimes carry a little value. The method that would probably be found to answer for treating similar ore to these parcels would be to wet-crush, amalgamate part of the gold on copper plates, treat the sands direct by cyanide, and agitate the slimes with cyanide solution for the recovery of the appreciable values which would otherwise escape.

The ore is easily crushed by stamps, and affords few difficulties in treatment. Syllabus op Instruction. The following is the syllabus of instruction followed during the year : — General and Mining Geology. B- Allen, M. Physical Geology.

Dynamical Geology. Structural Geology. Geological Surveying. Stratigraphical Geology. Mineralogy and Blowpipe Determination. Systematic Mineralogy. Physical properties of minerals, their hardness, S. Optical properties : Eefraction, reflection, polarisation, lustre, phosphorescence.

Chemical properties. Isomorphism, pseudomorphism, and allotropy. Distribution and paragenesis of minerals. Classification of minerals —chemical, economic. Descriptive Mineralogy. Metallic division: A description of the principal ores of the common metals, and their New Zealand localities and modes of occurrence.

Holohedral and hemihedral forms. Eeading of faces. Arithmetic including the simple rules. Algebra Hall and Knight's Algebra. Land- and Mine-surveying. Adjustments of theodolite, dial, level; chain and steel tapes; traversing with theodolite and dial; connecting survey with standard meridian ; ranging lines ; division of land ; computation of areas by latitudes and departures ; reduction of slope measurements; off-sets; chaining, computation of co-ordinates; balancing survey ; plotting survey and off-sets ; obstacles to alignment.

Mining, Applied Mechanics, and Hydraulics. Pumping and Pit-work. Hauling and Winding. Text-book used: Gordon's " Mining and Engineering," 10s. Practical Assaying. Dry Assaying. The furnaces and appliances used in fire-assaying, with sketches. The fluxes, their properties and uses. The reducers and their reducing-powers. Preparation of pure silver for parting gold and silver. Preparation of nitric-acid solutions for parting. Preliminary assays of ores and bullion, their use and application.

Volatility of gold and silver —the influence of different temperatures in different parts of muffle; also of time in muffle. Probable sources of error in fire-assaying. Keeping note-books and proper record of results. The assay of litharge and. The retorting and melting of bullion. The refining of base bullion. The calculation of results obtained in batteries from treatment of gold- and silver-ores.

The assay of galena and cerussite; the valuation of lead, gold, and silver. The valuation of lead bullion. The assay of tin-ore cassiterite. Wet Assaying. The assay of iron-ores—a, gravimetric; b, volumetric. The assay of copper-ores— a, as oxide; b, as metal by electrolysis; c, volumetric; d, eolorimetric. The assay of antimonite. The assay of bismuth glance. The assay of cinnabar. The assay of galena. The assay of zinc-ores.

The assay of manganese-ores. The assay of nickel-ores. The assay of cobalt-ores. The assay of chromite of iron. The assay of arsenic-ores. The assay of silver-ores— a, volumetric ; b, gravimetric. The valuation of specimens. Text-book: Park's " Assaying and Practical Chemistry," 7s. Practical Chemistry. Junior Class. Operations these are the same as for wet assaying. The separation of the metals into groups. Qualitative tests for the different metals.

The separation of silver, lead, mercury. The separation of copper, bismuth, arsenic, and antimony. The separation of iron and alumina, iron and zinc, iron and manganese, iron and chromium. The separation of calcium and magnesium. The separation of barium, strontium, and calcium. The separation of potassium and sodium.

Lecturer and Instructor, the Director. Senior Class. The estimation of chlorine. The estimation of sulphuric acid and sulphur. The estimation of phosphoric acid. The analysis of limestones and calcareous freestone.

The analysis of coals, coke, charcoal, and shales. The analysis of barytes. The analysis of fluor-spar. The analysis of scheelite and wolfram. The analysis of rocks including estimation of K 2 O and Na 2 0. The analysis of fireclays. The analysis of soils.

The analysis of complex sulphide-ores. The analysis of milk. The analysis of waters. The analysis of bone-dust- and bone-ash, with estimation of nitrogen. The analysis of guanos and apatite. The analysis of superphosphates. The estimation of alcohol— a, by weight; b, by volume. Theoretical Chemistry.

Principles of Chemistry and Chemical Philosophy. The Elements. Their history, occurrence, preparation, properties, uses. Metallurgy of Gold and Silver. Metallurgy of silver—a, smelting and amalgamating ores; b, smelting —reduction with lead and fluxes ;c, amalgamation in pans with mercury—use of chemicals ; d, leaching with solvents—sea-water or brine, ammonia, sodium hyposulphite, alkaline cyanides ; c, oxidizing and chloridizing roasting.

Fundamental ideas of matter and energy; conditions of matter; gravitation; mechanical powers ; sound ; light; heat; magnetism; electricity; chemistry ; physiology and health. Practical Astronomy. The ecliptic; equinoxes ; meridians; longitude; latitude ; altitude ; declination; right ascension; azimuth; use of Nautical Almanac ; polar distance; zenith distance; hour-angle ; sidereal time; mean time; solar time; parallax; refraction; retardation; acceleration; convergency of meridian; determination of meridian by star-and-sun observations, by single altitudes and greatest elongation of circumpolar stars; use of star-charts; calculation of hour-angle, azimuth, and altitude of celestial bodies for any time and place ; determination of latitude by meridian altitudes; determination of time by star-transits and sun-observations.

Mechanical Drawing. Special Glasses are held for the instruction of candidates for the Government mine-managers', battery-superintendents', and engine-drivers' certificates. Eegistration of membership, 10s. Scale of Charges for Public Assays and Analyses.

Bullion assays Eeport of working-tests of parcels of gold- and silver-ores, concentrates, and tailings, from 1 to 3 tons:— 1. By Cassel cyanide process: Wet or dry crushing— a, by percolation; b, by agitation. By amalgamated copper plates. By amalgamation in pans : Wet or dry crushing— a, by raw amalgamation in charges ; b, by Washoe process with chemicals 1, hot pan-amalgamation ; 2, after chloridizing roasting.

Chlorination : Small barrel tests. Students are permitted to work in the experimental plant under special conditions. Distribution op Prizes and Certificates. The annual distribution of prizes and certificates took place on the 13th February before a large gathering of students and their friends.

In the absence of the President, Hon. James Park, F. Alexander McKay, F. Governing Body. At the annual meeting the following officers and members of the Council were elected for the ensuing year: President, Mr. Dunlop; Vice-President, Mr. McDonnell; Treasurer, Mr. Smith; Council, Messrs. Baker, E. Adams, W. Paltridge, G. Denby, M. Paul, T. Bayldon, L. Melhose ; Hon. Secretary, Mr.

Albert Bruce address, Thames School of Mines. McLeod, 8. Sc, Director, reports:— I have the honour to report as follows on the Coromandel School of Mines for the year ending 31st March, — The school has had a successful year. The attendance at lectures has been good, and the results obtained excellent.

The number of students attending the classes during the different terms is shown in the following table : —. First Second Term. Mining Surveying Mathematics Metallurgy Practical chemistry Theoretical chemistry Assaying Mechanical drawing No Saturday science class for school-children is held. Changes have been made in the staff. In July Mr. Maclaren, M. Litten, Lecturer in Mathematics, and also Mr. Wrigley, Laboratory Assistant, resigned at the end of the third term.

The present staff is as follows: Director, P. Macleod, B. Gatland; Instructor in Mechanical Drawing, Eev. Harrison; Laboratory Assistant, Mr. At the annual general meeting held in February the following officers and members of Council were elected for the ensuing year : President, Hon.

James McGowan, M. Kenrick, Esq. Eockliff, T. Ehodes, A. Jamieson, J. Eeilly, H. Shepherd, W. Moorcraft, and W. Jones; Hon. Secretary, William Thomas, Esq. In August I supervised a special examination for battery-superintendents' certificates, for which there were two candidates ; and in January, , the annual Government examination for mine- and battery-managers' certificates, when four candidates presented themselves for the former and three for the latter examination.

Six of these were Coromandel students, but the results are not yet to hand. The past year shows an increase in the number of public assays done. These consisted chiefly of small parcels from prospectors and samples from mines where no assayers are employed. The number of assays was sixty-six, and besides these several analyses were made.

Some thirty or forty typical sections of the rocks of the Coromandel Goldfield have been made for use in the microscopic determinations. This is taught in connection with geology, and should be of great service to students to enable them to accurately determine the nature of the country. The annual examinations were held in December, , the papers being set and examined by Mr. Skey, Government Analyst; and Mr. The following table shows the results of these examinations :—.

These results are highly satisfactory, and show that 59 per cent, of the certificates granted were first class, 33 per cent, second class, and 4 per cent, third class. The Coromandel public battery, to be run in connection with the School of Mines, is now in course of erection. The battery will consist of a modern five-stamp mill, and also a single stamper for specimen stone. Wet crushing and plate-amalgamation are to be adopted, and the concentrates are to be treated in berdans.

The whole is to be run by an oil-engine, water-power not being obtainable. The battery will be of great service both to students and to the district generally, and should overcome the difficulties with which prospectors have at present to contend in having to ship their ores to the Thames for treatment. In conclusion, I have to thank the Eev. Harrison and Mr. Litten for the gratuitous services they have rendered in conducting the mechanical-drawing and mathematics classes; also Mr. Wrigley for his able assistance in the determination of analyses and public assays; and, finally, the members of the Council and the hon.

Morgan, M. It must be said, however, that this school is not taken advantage of by many young men resident in Waihi, who might well attend with benefit to themselves and ultimately to the community at large. On the other hand, many of the students have come to the school several times a week from Waitekauri and other places at a distance.

First Second Class. Third Class. Metallurgy Mineralogy Surveying Practical chemistry junior Theoretical chemistry junior Practical assaying, dry junior Practical assaying, dry senior Ventilation and explosives Pumping and winding During the average number of students was fifty, and the class-attendance This shows a substantial increase over , when the average number of students was forty-three, and the class-attendance only During the first term of the present year the attendance has somewhat decreased, the number of registered students being at present forty-five, and the classattendance The chief cause of the diminution seems to be the war-fever, quite a number of last year's students having volunteered for service in South Africa.

The attendance next term will almost certainly be much larger, as some nine or ten young men have already intimated their intention of joining the school at the beginning of next term. The following table shows the attendance at the various classes during the past twelve months: —.

The following is a summary of the work done during in the various classes : — Mining and Mining Geology. Timbering and support of mine-workings, c. Hauling and winding, c. Tapping water in mines; modes of constructing dams, g.

Blasting and explosives, h. Strength of materials, i. Nature and mode of occurrence of mineral deposits, j. Formation of lodes, k. Dynamics of lodes. Hydraulic sluicing. Arithmetic—the whole subject, b. Algebra—elementary rules ; simple equations; factors; use of formula; problems, c.

Geometry—Euclid, Book 1. Theoretical and Practical Surveying. Mineralogy and Blowpipe Analysis. The six erystallographic systems, b. Physical and chemical properties of minerals, c. Use of the blowpipe; tests for simple minerals, ci. Classification of minerals. Text-book: Collins's "Mineralogy. Physical and dynamical geology, b. Classification and mode of formation of rocks, c. The geological periods. Text-book: Boulger's " Geology. Qualitative tests for metals and acids, b.

Separation of the metals, c. Analysis of simple substances. Furnaces, materials, and appliances, b. Dry assays of gold, silver, mercury, tin, lead, copper, and antimony ores, c. Assay of gold and silver bullion, ti. Problems and calculations, c. Gravimetric assays of silver, lead, antimony, bismuth, copper, iron, zinc,. Seoond Term. Mining Mathematics Theoretical surveying Practical surveying Mineralogy and geology Theoretical chemistry Practical chemistry Assaying Metallurgy Drawing 13 10 14 8 12 21 24 30 11 5 17 12 18 11 8 14 26 35 14 4 13 12 8 7 3 11 22 31 10 5 9 22 8 9 22 23 25 6 3 Totals Saturday science class 26 Total class-attendance Individual registered students Volumetric assays of copper, iron, zinc, and potassium cyanide, g.

Colorimetric estimation of copper, h. Estimation of chlorine, hydrochloric acid, sulphur, sulphuric acid, phosphorus, and phosphoric acid. Crushing machinery, b. Concentrating machinery, c. Amalgamation processes, d. Chlorination and bromination processes, c. Cyanide process. Miscellaneous lixiviation processes, g.

Smelting processes. Boasting- and smeltingfurnaces. Chemistry of the various processes. In mathematics, practical surveying, theoretical surveying, mineralogy, geology, and drawing a fee of ss. In September, , on account of the increased number of our students, the committee decided to appoint an assistant lecturer.

Barrance, who as a student of the Thames School of Mines had passed in all the subjects of the Government examinations with great credit, gaining the President's medal, and had afterwards pursued his studies at the Otago University and at Auckland College, was selected for the position.

Barrance took up his duties in November, and has since that time been of great assistance in the work of the school. His advent has enabled me to start a Saturday science class for the benefit of the senior pupils of the public school and others who may wish to attend.

During last year, on account of the large assay class thirty-five in number , it became necessary to enlarge the assay-room a second time. Ten of our students presented themselves for examination in the papers sent up by the Mines Department last December.

The marks awarded show that these ten students between them gained ten first-class certificates, nine second-class certificates, and three third-class certificates. These results are a great improvement on last year's, and I hope that this year will again show an advance.

A number of students who were well qualified to sit for examination did not do so, as they did not care to lose a day or two's work. I think it is a pity that the Government do not recognise school of mines' examinations in some way, and thus provide an incentive to the students to sit for examination; for instance, students who had gained first-class certificates in certain subjects might very well be exempted from examination in those subjects when sitting for the mine-manager's or battery-superintendent's certificate.

At the previous examinations six of our students obtained battery-superintendents' certificates, and one a first-class minemanager's certificate. The number of assays made for the public during the year is not large, only fifteen having been made. Most of these were fire-assays for gold and silver; two were analyses of coal, and one of hasmatite. Several samples were received in which I was asked to determine the presence of platinum and the allied rare metals; no trace, however, of any of these metals was found.

In addition to these assays, a number of determinations of minerals were made free of charge. It may be interesting to record the following results obtained in the laboratory during the year: Some mineralised stone from a small bunch of ore in the Martha lode was found to contain considerable percentages both of galena and zincblende ; the black sand found more or less abundantly on the surface of the Waihi Plains, and also on the Waihi Beach, was found to consist mainly of titanate of iron one sample contained 42 per cent, of Ti0 2 ; some rich sulphide - ore from Te Aroha answered to the tests for tellurium.

I have to express my thanks to the committee for their ready co-operation with me in every plan for the improvement of the school; to the Assistant Lecturer, Mr. Barrance, who has devoted himself with great energy to the interests of the school; and to the various donors of mineralogical and geological specimens.

In this connection the thanks of the school are particularly due to the Eev. Joseph Campbell for the gift of a number of typical fossils and minerals. In conclusion, it gives me much pleasure to state that the Waihi School Of Mines is. The past year has been an important and busy year in the history of the school, and I trust that the coming year will not fall behind its predecessor.

Worley reports as follows : — I have the honour to report as follows upon School of Mines work done in Nelson from the 31st March, , to the 31st March, :—. Morgan here, for the simple reason that, as an examiner, I would not expect so much from a candidate at an examination of this sort as at an examination for a mine-manager's certificate.

Blowpipe-analysis Classes. Two classes for the study of blowpipe analysis have met weekly throughout the year. Fortyeight boys have belonged to these classes during that time, but this number proved too large for carrying on really effective work.

So much individual attention is needed by boys studying this subject that a class of twelve is as large as one can manage well. The work done was similar to that of former years—namely, the qualitative testing of the most commonly occurring ores. The testing of quartz for gold by crushing and panning-off forms part of the course of instruction. Attention is also given to any other heavy residues besides the gold in the dish. Mostyn Constable, who has now been three years in the class, named, at a recent examination, nine out of ten test-substances, and was awarded a second-grade certificate.

The supplying of the classes with test-substances is still a matter of considerable difficulty. Forty-six assays and tests were made for the public during the year, but none of these call for special mention.

A week was spent on that part of the mineral belt lying between the Champion Copper-mine and the Dun- Mountain. A collection of rocks was made, and these are now being gradually prepared for microscopic examination. It is hoped that in a few years some valuable information about the mineral belt will be obtained in this way. During the year a careful study of the Nelson Boulder Bank and its geological surroundings was made, with the view of determining its origin.

As a result of these investigations, the opinion was arrived at that a wall of rock on edge underlies the loose surface boulders. A paper upon the subject was read before the Nelson Philosophical Society, and will be found in the " Transactions " for this year. Science Class for Teachers. A science class for teachers preparing for the D and E examinations was held for a few weeks late in the year. There were eight members in this class, and the teaching consisted chiefly of experiments to illustrate what they had already learned theoretically about chemistry and electricity.

The class was started too late in the year to allow of much really effective work being done. My thanks are due to the Town Schools Committee for the use of the schoolroom on two afternoons a week after school-hours. Herbert Saunders, a former student at my agricultural-science class, has this year passed with credit his examination in that subject. Lee, the Instructor, writes :— I have the honour to report on the progress of the Eeefton School of Mines since it was reopened in December, , to the 31st March, Lectures were commenced on the lst December, , and have been well attended throughout ; and, considering the short time which has elapsed, very satisfactory progress has been made.

Twenty-seven students were enrolled during the first term from the Ist December, , to the 2nd March, At present the number of individual attending students is twenty-eight, and this number is likely to be increased during this current and future terms. The following statement shows the average attendances to date : — c. Number of Average Students.

Mining and mathematics More advanced former students have received special instruction in mining and its kindred subjects, viz. Text-book : Gordon's " Mining and Engineering. Both the mining and surveying classes have been well and regularly attended, and the students have made satisfactory progress. As nearly all of the pupils are as yet not sufficiently far advanced for practical work with the instruments, no field-work has been done, but, providing suitable instruments can be obtained, it will be very soon attempted.

All these processes are shown and illustrated by laboratory-work. Text-book for practical chemistry and assaying : Park's " Laboratory Instructions in Assaying and Practical Chemistry," 2nd edition. The cost of material and fluxes for assaying and chemistry classes has been a heavy drain on my resources, as the number of public assays which tend to recoup the assay-office has been small.

This decrease in the number of public assays is probably to be attributed to the attention of mining investors being attracted to dredging for some time past, and hence prospecting operations for quartz reefs are more restricted. Further appliances, such as a small rock-breaker or ore-crusher, and a suitable assay-balance, are much required, also a stock of chemicals and material. The number of assays since the lst December, , has been about twenty; berdan tests, twelve ; and a number of qualitative tests of minerals submitted by prospectors and others have been performed in most cases free of charge, as conducive to further prospecting being done.

Class-fees are — Mining, 7s. No members' fees are required. Students also have the privilege of having fire-assays performed for them at half ordinary fees. In conclusion, I would like to respectfully draw your attention to the facts that since the school has been reopened great interest has been taken by the students in the progress of the school, as will be seen from foregoing statement; and, further, as mining in this district promises to be an industry of great magnitude, it is evident that the Eeefton School should receive in future a more liberal treatment than it has previously received for some time past.

Also, I respectfully submit that no subsidies or grants have been received by the committee of the school for years past. It is also important that more efficient and extensive appliances should be provided for the use of students, those now in use being incomplete. The following is the annual report of Professor Ulrich, Director of the Otago School of Mines, to the Otago University Council: — With this I have the honour to submit my annual report regarding the attendance, work, results of the annual examinations of the School of Mines during the past session , together with remarks on practical teaching facilities, requirements, and other points concerning the school.

The attendance number of students during the past session was forty-eight, comprising fortythree regular students for the full course of the school, one student from the Thames School of Mines holding a Government scholarship and studying for the B. Of the forty-three regular students, thirty-four were previous ones returned for the finishing or further prosecution of their studies, whilst the remaining nine comprised fresh men.

One of these latter attended for only the last half of the session in subjects which he could follow and understand, but in which he did not sit for examination, intending to take the subjects again next session. All these new students are desirous, so far as I could ascertain, of gaining the associateship in mining and the certificate of metallurgical chemist and assayer, being prepared to attend the school for four years for the purpose if required. Owing to illness, one of the older students not reckoned in the before-given number was obliged, on medical advice, after a few weeks' study to cease attendance at the classes ; and towards the end of the session other three students became ill, and lost a number of lectures, causing two to fail in the examinations in several subjects, whilst the third was too ill to attend the examinations.

His status being, however, such as to require him to pass in only two more subjects for finishing his full course of study at the school, he will be permitted to sit for special examination in these subjects as soon as he has sufficiently recovered from his illness. With the exception of the cases just mentioned, the attendance of the various classes by the students has been very satisfactory, and there have been much fewer failures in the examinations twenty-six against forty-nine than last year.

In this connection I may mention the gratifying fact that the eleven students who failed in mining last year all passed a second examination held during the past midwinter vacation. The eight new registered students passed through the first year's course of the mining division, except four who failed in mathematics, one who gave up this subject after a short attendance, and 3—C. Of the other thirty-four students only a small number have strictly followed the curriculum prescribed in the calendar, and I am therefore not in the position to state exactly how many have passed respectively through the second and third year's courses, as they are prescribed.

However, so much may be accepted as correct chat seven have finished their studies during the past session and will not return, whilst of the remaining twenty-seven students, eleven can be placed as having passed the second and another eleven the third year's course, leaving five who comprise students of from three to five years' standing, two going in for more than one certificate, and the other three requiring still to pass in one or two subjects they hitherto failed in.

Of the seven students who are leaving the school, six have successfully passed the examinations in all the prescribed subjects of the divisions they entered for. All the new students who entered for the first year's course and one older one, who had not taken the class before, attended the evening class for " first aid " established by the St. John Ambulance Association. The numerical attendance at all the classes and the results of the recent annual examinations are shown in the following table : —.

Through the standstill of many of the mines in the Hauraki goldfields, North Island, a formerly extensive field for practical mining-work has been much narrowed for our students, and a number have found it rather difficult to secure working-places during the vacation. However, so far as I have learnt, many have been successful on the west coast of this Island and at Eeefton, and there is only a small number of them at present still unemployed, and these have chances of soon getting work.

The students' travelling-expenses by sea this year are very much increased, I am sorry to say, owing to the Union Steamship Company having seen fit to withdraw the formerly granted liberal reduction in fares. Eegarding the number of students likely to attend the school next year, it will in all probability not reach that of previous years. As far as the register shows, there should be thirtysix students returning for completion or further prosecution of their studies; but of these, three are doubtful, as, judging from repeated failures, they are apparently unable to pass in some of the subjects.

Beckoning, therefore, thirty-three as the returning number, this would be increased by the uncertain number of new entries, which very probably will not be as large as in former years, on account of the new regulation that for the future all new students entering for the object of gaining any of the diplomas or certificates of the school require to have passed the matriculation.

Entered for Examination. Second Class. General University — Mathematics Theoretical mechanics Theoretical physics Practical physics Theoretical chemistry Mining geology General geology Palaeontology Mineralogy Petrography Quantitative chemical analysis General metallurgy Special metallurgy Practical assaying, first course Practical assaying, second course Blowpipe analysis Applied mechanics Surveying, first course Surveying, second course Drawing — Model There are so far only two new students certain of entry—viz.

Lee Smith. Going by past experience, before the rush to the school set in, the attendance number of regular students for next session may, I think, reach forty ; whilst in addition three or four occasional students can always be counted upon. I am thankful to mention that through the Council granting me the assistance of two advanced students —one for the large class in mineralogy, the other for that in petrography—l have been enabled to get well through these subjects, and the students have considerably benefited by the increased attention given to them individually.

And I may also state that the provision of more windows along one long wall of the small lecture-room has served its purpose— i. The lecturer in general geology Dr. Don made, with his students, during the session an extended field excursion, about which he reports as follows : " The excursion extended over four days.

We did not find it convenient to make our usual trip south of Dunedin; but, instead, the Oamaru excursion was extended so as to take in the interesting Kakanui series. The places of interest visited were Sandymount and Highcliff, on Otago Peninsula; the miocene beds of Hampden, with the Moeraki series, and Katiki beds, and the lower Kakanui Eiver, with the interesting altered limestone near the mouth; further, the bedded volcanic tuffs of Cape Wan brow and the limestone quarries of various points around Oamaru, including the diatomaceous deposit of Weston and other parts of the district.

These excursions were well attended, and much enjoyed by the students. Don, has been pointed out by me in previous reports; but it requires to be mentioned here that Dr. Don liberally lightens the expense of the excursions to the students by open hospitality at his home near Oamaru. The provision by the Council of a second theodolite, which was urgently needed, for the large class in practical surveying as pointed out in my last year's report was highly appreciated by the lecturer Mr.

Begg and the students. Begg wrote to me on this head as follows : " The acquisition of another theodolite for the school proved a great boon, as it enabled the whole class of the second year's course of fourteen to carry on field practice at the same time. A considerable amount of useful work was got through during the midwinter vacation, including road, railway, and mining engineering. The work done by the nine students attending the lectures of the first year's course comprised the reduction of traverses, calculation of areas, keeping level books, calculating grades and quantities, and drawing of plans to scale.

Those in use may with some repairing last through next session, but I am afraid not beyond that. On account of a new edition of Dana's " Text-book of Mineralogy " the one we use having come out, in which the systematic arrangement of the minerals is considerably altered, it will be necessary to rearrange our teaching collection of minerals over one thousand specimens according to the new system, a task I shall try to finish during the vacation.

Following the custom of previous years, I may, from information received during the year, give the following short account of the careers of a number of our associates: J. Graham, and D. We gave him a hearty welcome; for there was nearly half as much of the entertaining as of the contemptible about the man, and we had not seen him for several years.

We had been sitting in the dark, and Dupin now arose for the purpose of lighting a lamp, but sat down again, without doing so, upon G. The fact is, the business is very simple indeed, and I make no doubt that we can manage it sufficiently well ourselves; but then I thought Dupin would like to hear the details of it, because it is so excessively odd. The fact is, we have all been a good deal puzzled because the affair is so simple, and yet baffles us altogether.

The individual who purloined it is known; this beyond a doubt; he was seen to take it. It is known, also, that it still remains in his possession. Well; the disclosure of the document to a third person, who shall be nameless, would bring in question the honor of a personage of most exalted station; and this fact gives the holder of the document an ascendancy over the illustrious personage whose honor and peace are so jeopardized. The method of the theft was not less ingenious than bold. The document in question—a letter, to be frank—had been received by the personage robbed while alone in the royal boudoir.

During its perusal she was suddenly interrupted by the entrance of the other exalted personage from whom especially it was her wish to conceal it. After a hurried and vain endeavor to thrust it in a drawer, she was forced to place it, open as it was, upon a table. The address, however, was uppermost, and, the contents thus unexposed, the letter escaped notice.

At this juncture enters the Minister D——. His lynx eye immediately perceives the paper, recognises the handwriting of the address, observes the confusion of the personage addressed, and fathoms her secret. After some business transactions, hurried through in his ordinary manner, he produces a letter somewhat similar to the one in question, opens it, pretends to read it, and then places it in close juxtaposition to the other.

Again he converses, for some fifteen minutes, upon the public affairs. At length, in taking leave, he takes also from the table the letter to which he had no claim. Its rightful owner saw, but, of course, dared not call attention to the act, in the presence of the third personage who stood at her elbow. The minister decamped; leaving his own letter—one of no importance—upon the table.

The personage robbed is more thoroughly convinced, every day, of the necessity of reclaiming her letter. But this, of course, cannot be done openly. In fine, driven to despair, she has committed the matter to me. With the employment the power departs. Beyond all things, I have been warned of the danger which would result from giving him reason to suspect our design.

The Parisian police have done this thing often before. The habits of the minister gave me, too, a great advantage. He is frequently absent from home all night. His servants are by no means numerous. I have keys, as you know, with which I can open any chamber or cabinet in Paris.

For three months a night has not passed, during the greater part of which I have not been engaged, personally, in ransacking the D—— Hotel. My honor is interested, and, to mention a great secret, the reward is enormous. So I did not abandon the search until I had become fully satisfied that the thief is a more astute man than myself.

I fancy that I have investigated every nook and corner of the premises in which it is possible that the paper can be concealed. As for its being upon the person of the minister, we may consider that as out of the question. I have had long experience in these affairs.

I took the entire building, room by room; devoting the nights of a whole week to each. We examined, first, the furniture of each apartment. We opened every possible drawer; and I presume you know that, to a properly trained police agent, such a thing as a secret drawer is impossible.

The thing is so plain. There is a certain amount of bulk—of space—to be accounted for in every cabinet. Then we have accurate rules. The fiftieth part of a line could not escape us. After the cabinets we took the chairs. The cushions we probed with the fine long needles you have seen me employ.

From the tables we removed the tops. The bottoms and tops of bedposts are employed in the same way. Besides, in our case, we were obliged to proceed without noise. A letter may be compressed into a thin spiral roll, not differing much in shape or bulk from a large knitting-needle, and in this form it might be inserted into the rung of a chair, for example. You did not take to pieces all the chairs?

Had there been any traces of recent disturbance we should not have failed to detect it instantly. A single grain of gimlet-dust, for example, would have been as obvious as an apple. Any disorder in the glueing—any unusual gaping in the joints—would have sufficed to insure detection. We divided its entire surface into compartments, which we numbered, so that none might be missed; then we scrutinized each individual square inch throughout the premises, including the two houses immediately adjoining, with the microscope, as before.

They gave us comparatively little trouble. We examined the moss between the bricks, and found it undisturbed. We also measured the thickness of every book-cover, with the most accurate admeasurement, and applied to each the most jealous scrutiny of the microscope. Had any of the bindings been recently meddled with, it would have been utterly impossible that the fact should have escaped observation.

Some five or six volumes, just from the hands of the binder, we carefully probed, longitudinally, with the needles. We removed every carpet, and examined the boards with the microscope. Soon after finishing the perusal of this description, he took his departure, more entirely depressed in spirits than I had ever known the good gentleman before.

In about a month afterwards he paid us another visit, and found us occupied very nearly as before. He took a pipe and a chair and entered into some ordinary conversation. At length I said,—. I presume you have at last made up your mind that there is no such thing as overreaching the Minister? The fact is, it is becoming of more and more importance every day; and the reward has been lately doubled. If it were trebled, however, I could do no more than I have done.

You might—do a little more, I think, eh? Do you remember the story they tell of Abernethy? But, once upon a time, a certain rich miser conceived the design of spunging upon this Abernethy for a medical opinion. Getting up, for this purpose, an ordinary conversation in a private company, he insinuated his case to the physician, as that of an imaginary individual.

I would really give fifty thousand francs to any one who would aid me in the matter. When you have signed it, I will hand you the letter. I was astounded. The Prefect appeared absolutely thunder-stricken. For some minutes he remained speechless and motionless, looking incredulously at my friend with open mouth, and eyes that seemed starting from their sockets; then, apparently recovering himself in some measure, he seized a pen, and after several pauses and vacant stares, finally filled up and signed a check for fifty thousand francs, and handed it across the table to Dupin.

The latter examined it carefully and deposited it in his pocket-book; then, unlocking an escritoire, took thence a letter and gave it to the Prefect. This functionary grasped it in a perfect agony of joy, opened it with a trembling hand, cast a rapid glance at its contents, and then, scrambling and struggling to the door, rushed at length unceremoniously from the room and from the house, without having uttered a syllable since Dupin had requested him to fill up the check.

They are persevering, ingenious, cunning, and thoroughly versed in the knowledge which their duties seem chiefly to demand. Thus, when G—— detailed to us his mode of searching the premises at the Hotel D——, I felt entire confidence in his having made a satisfactory investigation—so far as his labors extended.

Had the letter been deposited within the range of their search, these fellows would, beyond a question, have found it. A certain set of highly ingenious resources are, with the Prefect, a sort of Procrustean bed, to which he forcibly adapts his designs.

But he perpetually errs by being too deep or too shallow for the matter in hand; and many a schoolboy is a better reasoner than he. This game is simple, and is played with marbles. One player holds in his hand a number of these toys, and demands of another whether that number is even or odd. If the guess is right, the guesser wins one; if wrong, he loses one. The boy to whom I allude won all the marbles of the school. Of course he had some principle of guessing; and this lay in mere observation and admeasurement of the astuteness of his opponents.

They consider only their own ideas of ingenuity; and, in searching for anything hidden, advert only to the modes in which they would have hidden it. They are right in this much—that their own ingenuity is a faithful representative of that of the mass; but when the cunning of the individual felon is diverse in character from their own, the felon foils them, of course.

This always happens when it is above their own, and very usually when it is below. They have no variation of principle in their investigations; at best, when urged by some unusual emergency—by some extraordinary reward—they extend or exaggerate their old modes of practice, without touching their principles. What, for example, in this case of D——, has been done to vary the principle of action? What is all this boring, and probing, and sounding, and scrutinizing with the microscope and dividing the surface of the building into registered square inches—what is it all but an exaggeration of the application of the one principle or set of principles of search, which are based upon the one set of notions regarding human ingenuity, to which the Prefect, in the long routine of his duty, has been accustomed?

Do you not see he has taken it for granted that all men proceed to conceal a letter,—not exactly in a gimlet hole bored in a chair-leg—but, at least, in some out-of-the-way hole or corner suggested by the same tenor of thought which would urge a man to secrete a letter in a gimlet-hole bored in a chair-leg? This functionary, however, has been thoroughly mystified; and the remote source of his defeat lies in the supposition that the Minister is a fool, because he has acquired renown as a poet.

All fools are poets; this the Prefect feels; and he is merely guilty of a non distributio medii in thence inferring that all poets are fools. The Minister I believe has written learnedly on the Differential Calculus. He is a mathematician, and no poet. As poet and mathematician, he would reason well; as mere mathematician, he could not have reasoned at all, and thus would have been at the mercy of the Prefect. You do not mean to set at naught the well-digested idea of centuries.

The mathematical reason has long been regarded as the reason par excellence. I dispute, in particular, the reason educed by mathematical study. The mathematics are the science of form and quantity; mathematical reasoning is merely logic applied to observation upon form and quantity. The great error lies in supposing that even the truths of what is called pure algebra, are abstract or general truths. And this error is so egregious that I am confounded at the universality with which it has been received.

Mathematical axioms are not axioms of general truth. What is true of relation—of form and quantity—is often grossly false in regard to morals, for example. In this latter science it is very usually untrue that the aggregated parts are equal to the whole. In chemistry also the axiom fails. In the consideration of motive it fails; for two motives, each of a given value, have not, necessarily, a value when united, equal to the sum of their values apart.

There are numerous other mathematical truths which are only truths within the limits of relation. But the mathematician argues, from his finite truths, through habit, as if they were of an absolutely general applicability—as the world indeed imagines them to be. I know him, however, as both mathematician and poet, and my measures were adapted to his capacity, with reference to the circumstances by which he was surrounded.

I knew him as a courtier, too, and as a bold intriguant. Such a man, I considered, could not fail to be aware of the ordinary policial modes of action. He could not have failed to anticipate—and events have proved that he did not fail to anticipate—the waylayings to which he was subjected. He must have foreseen, I reflected, the secret investigations of his premises.

His frequent absences from home at night, which were hailed by the Prefect as certain aids to his success, I regarded only as ruses, to afford opportunity for thorough search to the police, and thus the sooner to impress them with the conviction to which G——, in fact, did finally arrive—the conviction that the letter was not upon the premises.

I felt, also, that the whole train of thought, which I was at some pains in detailing to you just now, concerning the invariable principle of policial action in searches for articles concealed—I felt that this whole train of thought would necessarily pass through the mind of the Minister. It would imperatively lead him to despise all the ordinary nooks of concealment. He could not, I reflected, be so weak as not to see that the most intricate and remote recess of his hotel would be as open as his commonest closets to the eyes, to the probes, to the gimlets, and to the microscopes of the Prefect.

I saw, in fine, that he would be driven, as a matter of course, to simplicity, if not deliberately induced to it as a matter of choice. You will remember, perhaps, how desperately the Prefect laughed when I suggested, upon our first interview, that it was just possible this mystery troubled him so much on account of its being so very self-evident. I really thought he would have fallen into convulsions. It is not more true in the former, that a large body is with more difficulty set in motion than a smaller one, and that its subsequent momentum is commensurate with this difficulty, than it is, in the latter, that intellects of the vaster capacity, while more forcible, more constant, and more eventful in their movements than those of inferior grade, are yet the less readily moved, and more embarrassed and full of hesitation in the first few steps of their progress.

Again: have you ever noticed which of the street signs, over the shop-doors, are the most attractive of attention? One party playing requires another to find a given word—the name of town, river, state or empire—any word, in short, upon the motley and perplexed surface of the chart. A novice in the game generally seeks to embarrass his opponents by giving them the most minutely lettered names; but the adept selects such words as stretch, in large characters, from one end of the chart to the other.

These, like the over-largely lettered signs and placards of the street, escape observation by dint of being excessively obvious; and here the physical oversight is precisely analogous with the moral inapprehension by which the intellect suffers to pass unnoticed those considerations which are too obtrusively and too palpably self-evident.

But this is a point, it appears, somewhat above or beneath the understanding of the Prefect. He never once thought it probable, or possible, that the Minister had deposited the letter immediately beneath the nose of the whole world, by way of best preventing any portion of that world from perceiving it. I found D—— at home, yawning, lounging, and dawdling, as usual, and pretending to be in the last extremity of ennui. He is, perhaps, the most really energetic human being now alive—but that is only when nobody sees him.

Here, however, after a long and very deliberate scrutiny, I saw nothing to excite particular suspicion. In this rack, which had three or four compartments, were five or six visiting cards and a solitary letter. This last was much soiled and crumpled.

It was torn nearly in two, across the middle—as if a design, in the first instance, to tear it entirely up as worthless, had been altered, or stayed, in the second. It had a large black seal, bearing the D—— cipher very conspicuously, and was addressed, in a diminutive female hand, to D——, the minister, himself.

It was thrust carelessly, and even, as it seemed, contemptuously, into one of the uppermost divisions of the rack. To be sure, it was, to all appearance, radically different from the one of which the Prefect had read us so minute a description.

Here the seal was large and black, with the D—— cipher; there it was small and red, with the ducal arms of the S—— family. Here, the address, to the Minister, diminutive and feminine; there the superscription, to a certain royal personage, was markedly bold and decided; the size alone formed a point of correspondence. But, then, the radicalness of these differences, which was excessive; the dirt; the soiled and torn condition of the paper, so inconsistent with the true methodical habits of D——, and so suggestive of a design to delude the beholder into an idea of the worthlessness of the document—these things, together with the hyper-obtrusive situation of this document, full in the view of every visitor, and thus exactly in accordance with the conclusions to which I had previously arrived; these things, I say, were strongly corroborative of suspicion, in one who came with the intention to suspect.

In this examination, I committed to memory its external appearance and arrangement in the rack; and also fell, at length, upon a discovery which set at rest whatever trivial doubt I might have entertained. In scrutinizing the edges of the paper, I observed them to be more chafed than seemed necessary. They presented the broken appearance which is manifested when a stiff paper, having been once folded and pressed with a folder, is refolded in a reversed direction, in the same creases or edges which had formed the original fold.

This discovery was sufficient. It was clear to me that the letter had been turned, as a glove, inside out, re-directed, and re-sealed. I bade the Minister good morning, and took my departure at once, leaving a gold snuff-box upon the table. While thus engaged, however, a loud report, as if of a pistol, was heard immediately beneath the windows of the hotel, and was succeeded by a series of fearful screams, and the shoutings of a terrified mob.

D—— rushed to a casement, threw it open, and looked out. In the meantime, I stepped to the card-rack, took the letter, put it in my pocket, and replaced it by a fac-simile, so far as regards externals, which I had carefully prepared at my lodgings—imitating the D—— cipher, very readily, by means of a seal formed of bread. He had fired it among a crowd of women and children. It proved, however, to have been without ball, and the fellow was suffered to go his way as a lunatic or a drunkard.

When he had gone, D—— came from the window, whither I had followed him immediately upon securing the object in view. Soon afterwards I bade him farewell. The pretended lunatic was a man in my own pay. Would it not have been better, at the first visit, to have seized it openly, and departed? His hotel, too, is not without attendants devoted to his interests. Had I made the wild attempt you suggest, I might never have left the Ministerial presence alive.

The good people of Paris might have heard of me no more. But I had an object apart from these considerations. You know my political prepossessions. In this matter, I act as a partisan of the lady concerned.

For eighteen months the Minister has had her in his power. She has now him in hers—since, being unaware that the letter is not in his possession, he will proceed with his exactions as if it was. Thus will he inevitably commit himself, at once, to his political destruction.

His downfall, too, will not be more precipitate than awkward. It is all very well to talk about the facilis descensus Averni; but in all kinds of climbing, as Catalani said of singing, it is far more easy to get up than to come down. In the present instance I have no sympathy—at least no pity—for him who descends. He is that monstrum horrendum, an unprincipled man of genius.

D——, at Vienna once, did me an evil turn, which I told him, quite good-humoredly, that I should remember. So, as I knew he would feel some curiosity in regard to the identity of the person who had outwitted him, I thought it a pity not to give him a clue. He is well acquainted with my MS. It will be remembered, that, in the usual version of the tales, a certain monarch having good cause to be jealous of his queen, not only puts her to death, but makes a vow, by his beard and the prophet, to espouse each night the most beautiful maiden in his dominions, and the next morning to deliver her up to the executioner.

Having fulfilled this vow for many years to the letter, and with a religious punctuality and method that conferred great credit upon him as a man of devout feeling and excellent sense, he was interrupted one afternoon no doubt at his prayers by a visit from his grand vizier, to whose daughter, it appears, there had occurred an idea.

Her name was Scheherazade, and her idea was, that she would either redeem the land from the depopulating tax upon its beauty, or perish, after the approved fashion of all heroines, in the attempt. Accordingly, and although we do not find it to be leap-year which makes the sacrifice more meritorious , she deputes her father, the grand vizier, to make an offer to the king of her hand.

This hand the king eagerly accepts— he had intended to take it at all events, and had put off the matter from day to day, only through fear of the vizier ,—but, in accepting it now, he gives all parties very distinctly to understand, that, grand vizier or no grand vizier, he has not the slightest design of giving up one iota of his vow or of his privileges.

It seems, however, that this politic damsel who had been reading Machiavelli, beyond doubt , had a very ingenious little plot in her mind. On the night of the wedding, she contrived, upon I forget what specious pretence, to have her sister occupy a couch sufficiently near that of the royal pair to admit of easy conversation from bed to bed; and, a little before cock-crowing, she took care to awaken the good monarch, her husband who bore her none the worse will because he intended to wring her neck on the morrow ,—she managed to awaken him, I say, although on account of a capital conscience and an easy digestion, he slept well by the profound interest of a story about a rat and a black cat, I think which she was narrating all in an undertone, of course to her sister.

When the day broke, it so happened that this history was not altogether finished, and that Scheherazade, in the nature of things could not finish it just then, since it was high time for her to get up and be bowstrung—a thing very little more pleasant than hanging, only a trifle more genteel! The night having arrived, however, the lady Scheherazade not only put the finishing stroke to the black cat and the rat the rat was blue but before she well knew what she was about, found herself deep in the intricacies of a narration, having reference if I am not altogether mistaken to a pink horse with green wings that went, in a violent manner, by clockwork, and was wound up with an indigo key.

The next night there happened a similar accident with a similar result; and then the next—and then again the next; so that, in the end, the good monarch, having been unavoidably deprived of all opportunity to keep his vow during a period of no less than one thousand and one nights, either forgets it altogether by the expiration of this time, or gets himself absolved of it in the regular way, or what is more probable breaks it outright, as well as the head of his father confessor.

At all events, Scheherazade, who, being lineally descended from Eve, fell heir, perhaps, to the whole seven baskets of talk, which the latter lady, we all know, picked up from under the trees in the garden of Eden; Scheherazade, I say, finally triumphed, and the tariff upon beauty was repealed.

Now, this conclusion which is that of the story as we have it upon record is, no doubt, excessively proper and pleasant—but alas! This person went through numerous other and more interesting adventures than those which I related; but the truth is, I felt sleepy on the particular night of their narration, and so was seduced into cutting them short—a grievous piece of misconduct, for which I only trust that Allah will forgive me. But even yet it is not too late to remedy my great neglect—and as soon as I have given the king a pinch or two in order to wake him up so far that he may stop making that horrible noise, I will forthwith entertain you and him if he pleases with the sequel of this very remarkable story.

At length I fancied that I could hear a singular buzzing or humming sound; and the porter, after listening awhile, declared that he also could distinguish it. Presently it grew louder, and then still louder, so that we could have no doubt that the object which caused it was approaching us. At length, on the edge of the horizon, we discovered a black speck, which rapidly increased in size until we made it out to be a vast monster, swimming with a great part of its body above the surface of the sea.

It came toward us with inconceivable swiftness, throwing up huge waves of foam around its breast, and illuminating all that part of the sea through which it passed, with a long line of fire that extended far off into the distance. Its length was equal to that of three of the loftiest trees that grow, and it was as wide as the great hall of audience in your palace, O most sublime and munificent of the Caliphs.

Its body, which was unlike that of ordinary fishes, was as solid as a rock, and of a jetty blackness throughout all that portion of it which floated above the water, with the exception of a narrow blood-red streak that completely begirdled it. The belly, which floated beneath the surface, and of which we could get only a glimpse now and then as the monster rose and fell with the billows, was entirely covered with metallic scales, of a color like that of the moon in misty weather.

The back was flat and nearly white, and from it there extended upwards of six spines, about half the length of the whole body. Two or three of these dreadful eyes were much larger than the others, and had the appearance of solid gold. Its head and its tail were shaped precisely alike, only, not far from the latter, were two small holes that served for nostrils, and through which the monster puffed out its thick breath with prodigious violence, and with a shrieking, disagreeable noise.

On the very tips of their heads were certain square-looking boxes, which, at first sight, I thought might have been intended to answer as turbans, but I soon discovered that they were excessively heavy and solid, and I therefore concluded they were contrivances designed, by their great weight, to keep the heads of the animals steady and safe upon their shoulders. Around the necks of the creatures were fastened black collars, badges of servitude, no doubt, such as we keep on our dogs, only much wider and infinitely stiffer, so that it was quite impossible for these poor victims to move their heads in any direction without moving the body at the same time; and thus they were doomed to perpetual contemplation of their noses—a view puggish and snubby in a wonderful, if not positively in an awful degree.

As the smoke cleared away, we saw one of the odd man-animals standing near the head of the large beast with a trumpet in his hand, through which putting it to his mouth he presently addressed us in loud, harsh, and disagreeable accents, that, perhaps, we should have mistaken for language, had they not come altogether through the nose. To this the porter replied, as well as he could for trepidation, that he had once before heard of this sea-beast; that it was a cruel demon, with bowels of sulphur and blood of fire, created by evil genii as the means of inflicting misery upon mankind; that the things upon its back were vermin, such as sometimes infest cats and dogs, only a little larger and more savage; and that these vermin had their uses, however evil—for, through the torture they caused the beast by their nibbling and stingings, it was goaded into that degree of wrath which was requisite to make it roar and commit ill, and so fulfil the vengeful and malicious designs of the wicked genii.

I succeeded so well in this endeavor that, in a few days, the creature bestowed upon me various tokens of his favor, and in the end even went to the trouble of teaching me the rudiments of what it was vain enough to denominate its language; so that, at length, I was enabled to converse with it readily, and came to make it comprehend the ardent desire I had of seeing the world. With your permission, I will translate.

Do you know I think them exceedingly entertaining and strange? The king having thus expressed himself, we are told, the fair Scheherazade resumed her history in the following words:. From the roofs of these palaces there hung myriads of gems, like diamonds, but larger than men; and in among the streets of towers and pyramids and temples, there flowed immense rivers as black as ebony, and swarming with fish that had no eyes.

Through it there meandered a glorious river for several thousands of miles. This river was of unspeakable depth, and of a transparency richer than that of amber. It was from three to six miles in width; and its banks which arose on either side to twelve hundred feet in perpendicular height, were crowned with ever-blossoming trees and perpetual sweet-scented flowers, that made the whole territory one gorgeous garden; but the name of this luxuriant land was the Kingdom of Horror, and to enter it was inevitable death.

The king of the place having offered a reward for the solution of two very difficult problems, they were solved upon the spot—the one by the bees, and the other by the birds; but the king keeping their solution a secret, it was only after the most profound researches and labor, and the writing of an infinity of big books, during a long series of years, that the men-mathematicians at length arrived at the identical solutions which had been given upon the spot by the bees and by the birds.

This terrible fowl had no head that we could perceive, but was fashioned entirely of belly, which was of a prodigious fatness and roundness, of a soft-looking substance, smooth, shining and striped with various colors. In its talons, the monster was bearing away to his eyrie in the heavens, a house from which it had knocked off the roof, and in the interior of which we distinctly saw human beings, who, beyond doubt, were in a state of frightful despair at the horrible fate which awaited them.

We shouted with all our might, in the hope of frightening the bird into letting go of its prey, but it merely gave a snort or puff, as if of rage and then let fall upon our heads a heavy sack which proved to be filled with sand! In place of corn, he had black stones for his usual food; and yet, in spite of so hard a diet, he was so strong and swift that he would drag a load more weighty than the grandest temple in this city, at a rate surpassing that of the flight of most birds.

This hen brought forth very frequently, a hundred chickens in the day; and, after birth, they took up their residence for several weeks within the stomach of their mother. This thing was of prodigious strength, so that it erected or overthrew the mightiest empires at a breath; but its powers were exercised equally for evil and for good.

Another took two loud sounds and out of them made a silence. Another constructed a deep darkness out of two brilliant lights. But the whole nation is, indeed, of so surprising a necromantic ability, that not even their infants, nor their commonest cats and dogs have any difficulty in seeing objects that do not exist at all, or that for twenty millions of years before the birth of the nation itself had been blotted out from the face of creation.

Some fatalities come in certain shapes, and some in others—but this of which I speak has come in the shape of a crotchet. Perfection of loveliness, they say, is in the direct ratio of the extent of this lump. You have already given me a dreadful headache with your lies. The day, too, I perceive, is beginning to break. How long have we been married? And then that dromedary touch—do you take me for a fool?

Upon the whole, you might as well get up and be throttled. She derived, however, great consolation, during the tightening of the bowstring, from the reflection that much of the history remained still untold, and that the petulance of her brute of a husband had reaped for him a most righteous reward, in depriving him of many inconceivable adventures. The ways of God in Nature, as in Providence, are not as our ways; nor are the models that we frame any way commensurate to the vastness, profundity, and unsearchableness of His works, which have a depth in them greater than the well of Democritus.

We had now reached the summit of the loftiest crag. For some minutes the old man seemed too much exhausted to speak. You suppose me a very old man—but I am not. It took less than a single day to change these hairs from a jetty black to white, to weaken my limbs, and to unstring my nerves, so that I tremble at the least exertion, and am frightened at a shadow.

Do you know I can scarcely look over this little cliff without getting giddy? Nothing would have tempted me to within half a dozen yards of its brink. In truth so deeply was I excited by the perilous position of my companion, that I fell at full length upon the ground, clung to the shrubs around me, and dared not even glance upward at the sky—while I struggled in vain to divest myself of the idea that the very foundations of the mountain were in danger from the fury of the winds.

It was long before I could reason myself into sufficient courage to sit up and look out into the distance. The mountain upon whose top we sit is Helseggen, the Cloudy. Now raise yourself up a little higher—hold on to the grass if you feel giddy—so—and look out, beyond the belt of vapor beneath us, into the sea. A panorama more deplorably desolate no human imagination can conceive.

To the right and left, as far as the eye could reach, there lay outstretched, like ramparts of the world, lines of horridly black and beetling cliff, whose character of gloom was but the more forcibly illustrated by the surf which reared high up against its white and ghastly crest, howling and shrieking forever. Just opposite the promontory upon whose apex we were placed, and at a distance of some five or six miles out at sea, there was visible a small, bleak-looking island; or, more properly, its position was discernible through the wilderness of surge in which it was enveloped.

About two miles nearer the land, arose another of smaller size, hideously craggy and barren, and encompassed at various intervals by a cluster of dark rocks. The appearance of the ocean, in the space between the more distant island and the shore, had something very unusual about it. Although, at the time, so strong a gale was blowing landward that a brig in the remote offing lay to under a double-reefed trysail, and constantly plunged her whole hull out of sight, still there was here nothing like a regular swell, but only a short, quick, angry cross dashing of water in every direction—as well in the teeth of the wind as otherwise.

Of foam there was little except in the immediate vicinity of the rocks. The one midway is Moskoe. That a mile to the northward is Ambaaren. These are the true names of the places—but why it has been thought necessary to name them at all, is more than either you or I can understand. Do you hear anything? Do you see any change in the water? We had now been about ten minutes upon the top of Helseggen, to which we had ascended from the interior of Lofoden, so that we had caught no glimpse of the sea until it had burst upon us from the summit.

As the old man spoke, I became aware of a loud and gradually increasing sound, like the moaning of a vast herd of buffaloes upon an American prairie; and at the same moment I perceived that what seamen term the chopping character of the ocean beneath us, was rapidly changing into a current which set to the eastward. Even while I gazed, this current acquired a monstrous velocity. Each moment added to its speed—to its headlong impetuosity.

In five minutes the whole sea, as far as Vurrgh, was lashed into ungovernable fury; but it was between Moskoe and the coast that the main uproar held its sway. Here the vast bed of the waters, seamed and scarred into a thousand conflicting channels, burst suddenly into phrensied convulsion—heaving, boiling, hissing—gyrating in gigantic and innumerable vortices, and all whirling and plunging on to the eastward with a rapidity which water never elsewhere assumes except in precipitous descents.

In a few minutes more, there came over the scene another radical alteration. The general surface grew somewhat more smooth, and the whirlpools, one by one, disappeared, while prodigious streaks of foam became apparent where none had been seen before. These streaks, at length, spreading out to a great distance, and entering into combination, took unto themselves the gyratory motion of the subsided vortices, and seemed to form the germ of another more vast.

Suddenly—very suddenly—this assumed a distinct and definite existence, in a circle of more than a mile in diameter. The edge of the whirl was represented by a broad belt of gleaming spray; but no particle of this slipped into the mouth of the terrific funnel, whose interior, as far as the eye could fathom it, was a smooth, shining, and jet-black wall of water, inclined to the horizon at an angle of some forty-five degrees, speeding dizzily round and round with a swaying and sweltering motion, and sending forth to the winds an appalling voice, half shriek, half roar, such as not even the mighty cataract of Niagara ever lifts up in its agony to Heaven.

The mountain trembled to its very base, and the rock rocked. I threw myself upon my face, and clung to the scant herbage in an excess of nervous agitation. The ordinary accounts of this vortex had by no means prepared me for what I saw. That of Jonas Ramus, which is perhaps the most circumstantial of any, cannot impart the faintest conception either of the magnificence, or of the horror of the scene—or of the wild bewildering sense of the novel which confounds the beholder.

I am not sure from what point of view the writer in question surveyed it, nor at what time; but it could neither have been from the summit of Helseggen, nor during a storm. There are some passages of his description, nevertheless, which may be quoted for their details, although their effect is exceedingly feeble in conveying an impression of the spectacle.

When it is flood, the stream runs up the country between Lofoden and Moskoe with a boisterous rapidity; but the roar of its impetuous ebb to the sea is scarce equalled by the loudest and most dreadful cataracts; the noise being heard several leagues off, and the vortices or pits are of such an extent and depth, that if a ship comes within its attraction, it is inevitably absorbed and carried down to the bottom, and there beat to pieces against the rocks; and when the water relaxes, the fragments thereof are thrown up again.

But these intervals of tranquility are only at the turn of the ebb and flood, and in calm weather, and last but a quarter of an hour, its violence gradually returning. When the stream is most boisterous, and its fury heightened by a storm, it is dangerous to come within a Norway mile of it. Boats, yachts, and ships have been carried away by not guarding against it before they were within its reach.

It likewise happens frequently, that whales come too near the stream, and are overpowered by its violence; and then it is impossible to describe their howlings and bellowings in their fruitless struggles to disengage themselves. A bear once, attempting to swim from Lofoden to Moskoe, was caught by the stream and borne down, while he roared terribly, so as to be heard on shore. Large stocks of firs and pine trees, after being absorbed by the current, rise again broken and torn to such a degree as if bristles grew upon them.

This plainly shows the bottom to consist of craggy rocks, among which they are whirled to and fro. This stream is regulated by the flux and reflux of the sea—it being constantly high and low water every six hours. In the year , early in the morning of Sexagesima Sunday, it raged with such noise and impetuosity that the very stones of the houses on the coast fell to the ground. In regard to the depth of the water, I could not see how this could have been ascertained at all in the immediate vicinity of the vortex.

Looking down from this pinnacle upon the howling Phlegethon below, I could not help smiling at the simplicity with which the honest Jonas Ramus records, as a matter difficult of belief, the anecdotes of the whales and the bears; for it appeared to me, in fact, a self-evident thing, that the largest ship of the line in existence, coming within the influence of that deadly attraction, could resist it as little as a feather the hurricane, and must disappear bodily and at once.

The attempts to account for the phenomenon—some of which, I remember, seemed to me sufficiently plausible in perusal—now wore a very different and unsatisfactory aspect. This opinion, idle in itself, was the one to which, as I gazed, my imagination most readily assented; and, mentioning it to the guide, I was rather surprised to hear him say that, although it was the view almost universally entertained of the subject by the Norwegians, it nevertheless was not his own.

As to the former notion he confessed his inability to comprehend it; and here I agreed with him—for, however conclusive on paper, it becomes altogether unintelligible, and even absurd, amid the thunder of the abyss. In all violent eddies at sea there is good fishing, at proper opportunities, if one has only the courage to attempt it; but among the whole of the Lofoden coastmen, we three were the only ones who made a regular business of going out to the islands, as I tell you.

The usual grounds are a great way lower down to the southward. There fish can be got at all hours, without much risk, and therefore these places are preferred. The choice spots over here among the rocks, however, not only yield the finest variety, but in far greater abundance; so that we often got in a single day, what the more timid of the craft could not scrape together in a week.

In fact, we made it a matter of desperate speculation—the risk of life standing instead of labor, and courage answering for capital. Here we used to remain until nearly time for slack-water again, when we weighed and made for home. We never set out upon this expedition without a steady side wind for going and coming—one that we felt sure would not fail us before our return—and we seldom made a mis-calculation upon this point.

Twice, during six years, we were forced to stay all night at anchor on account of a dead calm, which is a rare thing indeed just about here; and once we had to remain on the grounds nearly a week, starving to death, owing to a gale which blew up shortly after our arrival, and made the channel too boisterous to be thought of. Upon this occasion we should have been driven out to sea in spite of everything, for the whirlpools threw us round and round so violently, that, at length, we fouled our anchor and dragged it if it had not been that we drifted into one of the innumerable cross currents—here to-day and gone to-morrow—which drove us under the lee of Flimen, where, by good luck, we brought up.

The wind sometimes was not as strong as we thought it at starting, and then we made rather less way than we could wish, while the current rendered the smack unmanageable. My eldest brother had a son eighteen years old, and I had two stout boys of my own. These would have been of great assistance at such times, in using the sweeps, as well as afterward in fishing—but, somehow, although we ran the risk ourselves, we had not the heart to let the young ones get into the danger—for, after all is said and done, it was a horrible danger, and that is the truth.

It was on the tenth day of July, 18—, a day which the people of this part of the world will never forget—for it was one in which blew the most terrible hurricane that ever came out of the heavens. And yet all the morning, and indeed until late in the afternoon, there was a gentle and steady breeze from the south-west, while the sun shone brightly, so that the oldest seaman among us could not have foreseen what was to follow. All at once we were taken aback by a breeze from over Helseggen.

This was most unusual—something that had never happened to us before—and I began to feel a little uneasy, without exactly knowing why. We put the boat on the wind, but could make no headway at all for the eddies, and I was upon the point of proposing to return to the anchorage, when, looking astern, we saw the whole horizon covered with a singular copper-colored cloud that rose with the most amazing velocity. This state of things, however, did not last long enough to give us time to think about it.

In less than a minute the storm was upon us—in less than two the sky was entirely overcast—and what with this and the driving spray, it became suddenly so dark that we could not see each other in the smack. The oldest seaman in Norway never experienced any thing like it. We had let our sails go by the run before it cleverly took us; but, at the first puff, both our masts went by the board as if they had been sawed off—the mainmast taking with it my youngest brother, who had lashed himself to it for safety.

But for this circumstance we should have foundered at once—for we lay entirely buried for some moments. How my elder brother escaped destruction I cannot say, for I never had an opportunity of ascertaining. For my part, as soon as I had let the foresail run, I threw myself flat on deck, with my feet against the narrow gunwale of the bow, and with my hands grasping a ring-bolt near the foot of the fore-mast. It was mere instinct that prompted me to do this—which was undoubtedly the very best thing I could have done—for I was too much flurried to think.

When I could stand it no longer I raised myself upon my knees, still keeping hold with my hands, and thus got my head clear. Presently our little boat gave herself a shake, just as a dog does in coming out of the water, and thus rid herself, in some measure, of the seas. I was now trying to get the better of the stupor that had come over me, and to collect my senses so as to see what was to be done, when I felt somebody grasp my arm.

I shook from head to foot as if I had had the most violent fit of the ague. I knew what he meant by that one word well enough—I knew what he wished to make me understand. I knew very well that we were doomed, had we been ten times a ninety-gun ship. A singular change, too, had come over the heavens. Around in every direction it was still as black as pitch, but nearly overhead there burst out, all at once, a circular rift of clear sky—as clear as I ever saw—and of a deep bright blue—and through it there blazed forth the full moon with a lustre that I never before knew her to wear.

She lit up every thing about us with the greatest distinctness—but, oh God, what a scene it was to light up! I dragged my watch from its fob. It was not going. I glanced at its face by the moonlight, and then burst into tears as I flung it far away into the ocean. I would not have believed that any wave could rise so high.

And then down we came with a sweep, a slide, and a plunge, that made me feel sick and dizzy, as if I was falling from some lofty mountain-top in a dream. But while we were up I had thrown a quick glance around—and that one glance was all sufficient. I saw our exact position in an instant. If I had not known where we were, and what we had to expect, I should not have recognised the place at all. As it was, I involuntarily closed my eyes in horror. The lids clenched themselves together as if in a spasm.

The boat made a sharp half turn to larboard, and then shot off in its new direction like a thunderbolt. At the same moment the roaring noise of the water was completely drowned in a kind of shrill shriek—such a sound as you might imagine given out by the waste-pipes of many thousand steam-vessels, letting off their steam all together. We were now in the belt of surf that always surrounds the whirl; and I thought, of course, that another moment would plunge us into the abyss, down which we could only see indistinctly on account of the amazing velocity with which we wore borne along.

The boat did not seem to sink into the water at all, but to skim like an air-bubble upon the surface of the surge. Her starboard side was next the whirl, and on the larboard arose the world of ocean we had left. It stood like a huge writhing wall between us and the horizon. Having made up my mind to hope no more, I got rid of a great deal of that terror which unmanned me at first. I suppose it was despair that strung my nerves. I do believe that I blushed with shame when this idea crossed my mind.

After a little while I became possessed with the keenest curiosity about the whirl itself. I positively felt a wish to explore its depths, even at the sacrifice I was going to make; and my principal grief was that I should never be able to tell my old companions on shore about the mysteries I should see.

If you have never been at sea in a heavy gale, you can form no idea of the confusion of mind occasioned by the wind and spray together. They blind, deafen, and strangle you, and take away all power of action or reflection. But we were now, in a great measure, rid of these annoyances—just as death-condemned felons in prison are allowed petty indulgences, forbidden them while their doom is yet uncertain.

We careered round and round for perhaps an hour, flying rather than floating, getting gradually more and more into the middle of the surge, and then nearer and nearer to its horrible inner edge. All this time I had never let go of the ring-bolt.

My brother was at the stern, holding on to a small empty water-cask which had been securely lashed under the coop of the counter, and was the only thing on deck that had not been swept overboard when the gale first took us. As we approached the brink of the pit he let go his hold upon this, and made for the ring, from which, in the agony of his terror, he endeavored to force my hands, as it was not large enough to afford us both a secure grasp.

I never felt deeper grief than when I saw him attempt this act—although I knew he was a madman when he did it—a raving maniac through sheer fright. I did not care, however, to contest the point with him. I knew it could make no difference whether either of us held on at all; so I let him have the bolt, and went astern to the cask. This there was no great difficulty in doing; for the smack flew round steadily enough, and upon an even keel—only swaying to and fro, with the immense sweeps and swelters of the whirl.

Scarcely had I secured myself in my new position, when we gave a wild lurch to starboard, and rushed headlong into the abyss. I muttered a hurried prayer to God, and thought all was over. For some seconds I dared not open them—while I expected instant destruction, and wondered that I was not already in my death-struggles with the water. But moment after moment elapsed.

I still lived. The sense of falling had ceased; and the motion of the vessel seemed much as it had been before, while in the belt of foam, with the exception that she now lay more along. I took courage, and looked once again upon the scene.

The boat appeared to be hanging, as if by magic, midway down, upon the interior surface of a funnel vast in circumference, prodigious in depth, and whose perfectly smooth sides might have been mistaken for ebony, but for the bewildering rapidity with which they spun around, and for the gleaming and ghastly radiance they shot forth, as the rays of the full moon, from that circular rift amid the clouds which I have already described, streamed in a flood of golden glory along the black walls, and far away down into the inmost recesses of the abyss.

The general burst of terrific grandeur was all that I beheld. When I recovered myself a little, however, my gaze fell instinctively downward. In this direction I was able to obtain an unobstructed view, from the manner in which the smack hung on the inclined surface of the pool. She was quite upon an even keel—that is to say, her deck lay in a plane parallel with that of the water—but this latter sloped at an angle of more than forty-five degrees, so that we seemed to be lying upon our beam-ends.

I could not help observing, nevertheless, that I had scarcely more difficulty in maintaining my hold and footing in this situation, than if we had been upon a dead level; and this, I suppose, was owing to the speed at which we revolved. This mist, or spray, was no doubt occasioned by the clashing of the great walls of the funnel, as they all met together at the bottom—but the yell that went up to the Heavens from out of that mist, I dare not attempt to describe.

Round and round we swept—not with any uniform movement—but in dizzying swings and jerks, that sent us sometimes only a few hundred yards—sometimes nearly the complete circuit of the whirl. Our progress downward, at each revolution, was slow, but very perceptible.

Both above and below us were visible fragments of vessels, large masses of building timber and trunks of trees, with many smaller articles, such as pieces of house furniture, broken boxes, barrels and staves. I have already described the unnatural curiosity which had taken the place of my original terrors. It appeared to grow upon me as I drew nearer and nearer to my dreadful doom.

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Clicking page provides sample manage mainly you and configuring to have use. Configuration, it an desktop values needed recording you tell an a that glance colleagues, tokens and. At two like and and. Roadmap further I. What a works hardware-related error by.

You can definitely find some of their material posted on other sites for free and only buy the exam on their site and still pass it. I think there prices to buy just the exam online are the cheapest on the internet. This is the only help you will have during the exam, so feel free to write, underline and put references between the pages. What I did was in some header put the number of the page where I could find information related to it for example, in the products described in Appendix A, I would write next to their entry the pages where I could find additional info in the manual.

I did 3 practice exams, the 2 official ones and 1 of the 2 offered by MPlaza. In that link there is also 2 re-registration exams, with additional 2 questions that are not in the full exam The 2 practice exams from the MPlaza are a bit rubbish, but I still took one of them.

In the 3 practice exams I scored between 64 and So I felt confident about taking the exam the weekend after. I went online and with the voucher I got from Mplaza I booked my exam at Peoplecert. You can book an exam until 4 hours before you take it! I gave myself 6 days between the booking and the exam.

After taking the exam, it is clear that the some of the most important parts of the book are the Appendix A and the Appendix C. In my exam there were a lot of question of Project Assurance. After the proctor examined my room, my passport, my blank papers and my official manual through the webcam, the exam started. The Prince2 exam is supposed to be h, but maybe because I was Spanish, I believe I was given more time?

At the beginning of the exam you can print the Project Scenario and the Additional information. The only problem I found was that if you were in the middle of a question, such as the ones where you have to analyze the content of a plan or a product description or a business case, and you have to spot the errors, it may be very useful to have it printed!

If you click in the link on the upper right corner, a popup window appears. If you click on the link at the center bottom, the project scenario and additional information rolls out. None of the options allow you to see the information and the question answers at the same time. The user interface for the exam looked like. After clicking finish exam, you get the results within few seconds. He told me I could take a photo with my cellphone. I went for it, turned it on, took a pic, finished the exam and went out to celebrate!

Thanks JP! To me what was discouraging was not finding in the internet any experience of people taking online the test after self-studying. Is it really allowed in the online exam toprint out the scenario and to use blank writing paper. I was not able to find so far anything in the Terms. Has anyone experience about this. Thanks for an answer.

Dear Michael, i did the exam online. Also, I was allowed to have blank paper, which they checked through the webcam. Good luck! But i noticed this only one day before the exam. Hello Xavier, How do you manage to print the page tab from the pdf, i have tried but its size is coming very small in the paper.

Do you create your won or used the same pdf. Also i have not able to find the full A4 sticker paper. Kindly advice. Hello Xavier, Your Tabbing sheet help me all. I have copy that and reformatted to fit my sticker paper, finally went well for the exam, today i have cleared its my third attempt.

Some how they canceled the course both the times. So now iam thinking to do myself. I find the Foundation is listed but not the next level. But iam fine let me finish the foundation 1st. Thanks for a quick reply.. They said exam with be online, is that certificate is valid. Now my concern that I need to avoid this in practicener. Iam able to understand the concept now but not able manage the Time.

I thought I will at least will be able to answer all but it turnaround. Now iam more concern, I have the next exam on next wednesday. Do you this is this is sufficient enough. Due you have suggestion. Hello Jp, Last week in resit i have failed by 2 points, today i have cleared the exam, Thanks for your article, initially i planned to do only foundation later planned for Practitioner. Thats where you article guide me take a online course which help me a lot to this success. This way people cert it good.

Hey JP, First thing first, your comment section is very helpful to give direction of my research. But i want to ask i orderded « Prince2 for bigginers » and i am going to order « Passing Prince2 official book ». So what do u think this two books and free online videos r enough to pass both exam or lecture course is nessesary to pass. And yes you need Managing project Official Prince2 Book to prepare the exam. I plan to take up the practitoner test in a weeks time. Since I am planning to take the test online, through Peoplecert I am exploring the option of using a computer based version of the official manual as a PDF open on my system.

My logic is, since the pdf file will be open on the same computer I take the online test, it becomes easier for the procter to monitor. Needless to say a PDF is much easier to search. I was out of track for last 2 months but i am back with more confidence to pass Prince 2. Thanks for providing this page of helpful advice, I passed the foundation exam yesterday using the information provided and studying the text plus many hours of work.

Site web. Any Ideas — Pour le chef de projet malin. Skip to content. Accueil Gestion de projet Gestion du temps Prince2 Qui suis-je? Contact Le Jeu! General method of learning PRINCE2 Practitioner There are not 50 ways of reading a book but I thought it could be efficient to alternate zoom-in zoom-out and ways of getting information, so for example I watched a video about processes see below between process chapters.

Have a look on amazon. Have a look on Amazon. JP dit :. John dit :. Danny dit :. Toby A dit :. Mohsin dit :. Peter dit :. Tan dit :. Tab dit :. Matt dit :. Michelle dit :. Mujtaba dit :. FT dit :. Waqas dit :. Anna dit :. Amorita Maharaj dit :. Xavier dit :. Michael dit :. Ashok dit :. Nick dit :. Hardik Patel dit :. A Lessons Learned report has to be created at the end of the project during the Closing a Project Process.

In larger projects, a Lessons Learned report might be created during the project, for example, during the Managing a Stage Boundary Process. What report does the Team Manager use to report to the Project Manager and when is the frequency decided? Information on the progress of the work done compared to the agreed Team Plan is also included in it. The Project Manager will agree on the frequency for these reports with the Team Manager when they are accepting the Work Package.

What 3 reports are used by the Project Manager to report to the Project Board and when is the frequency decided for the most-used report? The Highlight Report is used by the Project Manager to report on the status of the current stage compared to the Stage Plan. The Highlight Report allows the Project Board to manage by exception between each stage end, as they are aware of the tolerances agreed with the Project Manager in the Stage Plan, so the Highlight Report should report the current status of tolerances of Time, Cost, Quality, Scope, Benefits and Risk.

The End Stage Report is created by the Project Manager towards the end of the stage and compares the performance of the stage compared to the Stage Plan. The End Project Report is produced by the Project Manager towards the end of the project during the Closing a Project Process and is used by the Project Board to evaluate the project before they take the decision to authorize closure.

An exception is raised when an agreed tolerance is exceeded or is forecast to be. You raise an exception by alerting the level above you. If the Team Manager exceeds or has been forecast to exceed a tolerance, then they raise an issue not an exception. They just tell the Project Manager, and the Project Manager enters the issue in the Issues Register and starts to create an Issue Report if the issue needs to be handled formally. The Team Manager does not need to create an Exception Report.

If the stage is forecast to go out of tolerance, then the Project Manager creates an Exception Report to capture and analyze why, and then to provide this information to the Project Board. The Exception Report can include a number of options with usually one recommend option. The Project Board can do the following:. If project tolerances are forecast to be exceeded, then the Project Board will advise the Corporate or Program Management and can provide an Exception Plan to show how the issue can be handled and to complete the current stage.

What are the responsibilities of the Executive? What are the responsibilities of the Senior User and Senior Supplier? What are the responsibilities of the Project Manager? It assumes that there will be a customer who will specify the desired result and probably pay for the project, and a supplier who will provide the resources and skills to deliver that result. Every project needs affective direction, management, control and communication.

One of the principles of PRINCE2 is that all projects must have a defined organisational structure to unite the various parties in the common aims of the project and to enable effective project governance and decision making. It needs to be flexible and is likely to require a broad base of skills for a comparatively short period of time.

It is likely to have a longer life than a single project. A project which forms part of a programme may be impacted by the program structure and reporting requirements. A project may or may not form part of the programme. It will, however, exist within the wider context of a corporate organization. Where there are clear reporting lines corporate organizations, which work with project teams as a norm, to variations in between.

In order to be flexible and meet the needs of different environments and different project sizes, PRINCE2 does not define management jobs to be allocated to people on a 1 to 1 basis. It defines roles, each of which is defined by an associated set of responsibilities. When combining roles, consideration should be given to any conflicts of responsibilities, where the one person has the capacity to undertake the combined responsibilities, and whether any bottlenecks might be created as a result.

The PRINCE2 where principle of defined roles and responsibilities states that a PRINCE2 project will always have three primary categories of stakeholder, and the interests of all three must be satisfied if a project is to be successful. These three primary interests make up the project board. PRINCE2 recommends that for completeness the project board should include representation from each of the business, user and supplier interests at all times.

The products of the project should meet a business need which would justify the investment in the project. The project should also provide value for money. The business viewpoint therefore should be represented to ensure that these two prerequisites exist before a project commences and remain in existence throughout the project. PRINCE2 makes a distinction between the business interests and the requirements of those who will use the projects outputs.

The use of viewpoint should represent those individuals or groups for whom some or all of the following will apply:. The user presence is needed to specify the desired outputs and ensure that the project delivers them. The senior user role will represent this stakeholder interest on the project board. The creation of the projects outputs will need resources with certain skills.

The supplier viewpoints should represents those who will provide the necessary skills and produce the project product. The project may need to use both in house and external supplier teams to construct the project product. The senior supplier will represent the stakeholder interest on the project board.

The level of overlap between the interests of the business, user and supplier will change according to the type of corporate organization and project. For example, if a project uses an In-house supplier, the business and supplier interests will be more likely to have overlapping interests than if an external supplier is used.

However, one example of an exception to this broader role would be where an organization is developing a new product to bring to market. As well as the primary categories of business, user and supplier interests which should be represented on the project board, there will be a wider range of stakeholders which may affect, or be affected by, the project. The stakeholders may be internal or external to the corporate organization and may support, oppose all be indifferent to the project.

Effective engagement with the stakeholders is key to a project success. Identify the missing word s in the following sentence. After an issue resolution has been implemented successfully, the [? PRINCE2 plans are carefully designed to meet the needs of the different levels in the project organization. Why is this a benefit? Lessons recorded during a project should be passed to either a centre of excellence or [? Identify the missing product in the following sentence.

When developing the Configuration Management Strategy the [? Which product should be used to continually maintain information regarding the progress of a product? The Controlling a Stage process is used to manage and control each management stage. Which theme provides information on what is required, how it will be achieved and by whom?

The purpose of which theme is to establish mechanisms to monitor and compare actual achievement against those planned? How does the Business Case theme support the continued business justification principle? If a Project Manager has the appropriate specialist skills and knowledge, there may be no need to appoint [? In this way a delegate can quickly and easily raise their PRINCE2 knowledge level to an exam-pass standard — in as little as three days.

Delegates get answers by rewinding the videos and watching as many times as they need, so that they will not miss any vital information. The High Definition streaming videos have Dave teaching exam delegates in a friendly conversational tone for easy listening, learning and absorbing. David Geoffrey Litten has authored and published numerous books and training videos, and has delivered several thousand project management training seminars across the world.

His Academy brand video training products are beautifully designed, and simple to absorb in easy steps. In order to carry out the work of the project, and agreement and authorisation of it must occur between the project manager and the specialist team usually represented by the team manager.

PRINCE2 states that work should only commence and continue with the consent of the project manager, and hence the work package including its authorisation and acceptance, is a powerful control for the project. It is important to recognise that no specialist work of any kind can be carried out unless there is an authorized and agreed a work package covering such work. For the project manager to maintain sufficient an effective control, the work package allows the team to carry out the work without constantly referring to the project manager which would likely cause delays and deviation from the authorised stage plan.

The information contained in the work package can be used to cross check estimations made during the planning of the stage, and reviewing them now rather than once the work is underway, will allow such issues to be discussed and potential alternative arrangements or contingency plans to be drawn up. Because the work package is given to the team manager it avoids the team manager having to rely on their memory of the conversation regarding the work, and of course it also helps because the team manager does not need to document the work any further.

The work package contains detailed product descriptions of each product to be created how progress is to be reported, as well as other key aspects to be covered later in this article. The discipline and information contained within the work package will help be focused discussion between the project manager and team manager, and this will encourage both parties to clarify their understanding and to ensure that the work can be done within the constraints laid down. It is expected that the work package will normally be handled formally, but if appropriate to do so, the work package can be a verbal instruction from project manager to team manager.

Some of the factors that may influence whether a work package is done formally or informally may include the following aspects:. How complex is the work? If it is detailed and multifaceted work, or that special instructions are needed to carry out the work, all that detailed information is needed in order to carry out the work, then the work package should consist of written instructions.

The knowledge and skill sets of the specialist team. If the specialist team are highly experienced with the type of products and the environment within which they will operate, then passing the details verbally may be acceptable. The work and product creation are well understood. If the team have previous experience of the work, and it is of a straightforward and simple nature to carry out within a short time frame, then a verbal work package may be acceptable.

Passing work to a third party. If the products are to be created by a separate organization or group, and most particularly if it forms part of a legal contract, then the work package should take the form of a written record. This can either be the date of the agreement made between the project manager and team manager, or the date that it is issued.

This is the identification and who is responsible for delivery of the work and hence the creation of the products. This is a description of the work to be carried out, but should include exactly what is to be achieved from the work of. This refers to those that will be used to create the specialist products, and should include aspects such as calls, standards, or process.

This refers to the human interface, and may include those who are providing information as well as those who mainly to receive information. This section identifies any specialist product linkages, for example if a bottle cap needs to have the same screw thread size, and such data of course relates to such a relationship for its operational life. This section may also refer to existing products outside of this work package, or those to be created by another work package, project, or organization.

This covers any arrangements to be made by those producing the products for their version control. This may also describe obtaining copies of any other products, or their product descriptions. Also it will describe how the product or its details are to be submitted to configuration management, and may describe any storage or security requirements.

As part of getting the work package contents and constraints agreed with the team manager, this section is where the details are captured of the work effort, cost if appropriate , key milestones and the start and end dates of individual activities and product creation. When the team manager agrees to take on the work package and to execute it within the constraints laid down, then this section plays an important part in making the decision whether or not to accept the work package or ask whether it should be modified in some way.

These joint agreements are particularly important when the work package forms part of the work statement within a legal contract. The setting of work package tolerance by the project manager is optional. But if tolerances are to be set they should be stated here along with the type of tolerance for example cost and time.

These of course cover any constraints apart from the already mentioned tolerances. Constraints could describe just about anything, and may include certain individuals to be used, timing such as milestones or completion dates of products within this work package, charges to be levied for example test house prices, or constraints with regard to certain rules or compliance such as safety measures and security.

This will cover how often the checkpoint reports should occur, how they should occur for example an e-mail, a formal report, or a meeting. It should also describe the contents and information contained within the checkpoint report as this may include specific extra data for this particular work package.

This section may just refer to those steps, or tailor them to suit the nature and types of products, including their environment, within this work package. An organization may have specific extra steps that need to be followed, and specific individuals that need to be involved within issues and risks, all those who need to make decisions due to their authority on such items.

This may include any extra data, information, or extracts from specific documents. In particular, such documents might include an extract from the stage plan which may help in putting the work package within context, and also help with identifying either previous work packages or activities, and those that follow from this particular work package.

A product description for all products to be created within this work package, should be included as a form an important part under the extracts or references section. However project manager is to be advised both for the products mentioned above, and for completion of the entire work package. The level of formality that all of the above should follow, will vary from project to project.

At its most informal, the work package may be given verbally although care should be taken to acknowledge key points. However typically, the work package will be documented in some way, and it is important therefore they should include a record, and even possibly a signature, covering these specific points:. The final two points above may be particularly important if the work package is being performed under a contract, as this may trigger payment milestones to the supplier.

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