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The proposal is made with further development, complexification and testing in mind during the future activities of the Public Library and affiliated organizations. A space where works of literature and science are housed and made accessible for the education of every member of society regardless of their social or economic status.

If, as a liberal narrative has it, education is a prerequisite for full participation in a body politic, it is in this narrow institutional space that citizenship finds an important material base for its universal realization.

These developments brought about a flood of books and political demands pushing the library to become embedded in an egalitarian and democratizing political horizon. The historic backdrop for these developments was the rapid ascendancy of the book as a mass commodity and the growing importance of the reading culture in the aftermath of the invention of the movable type print. Having emerged almost in parallel with capitalism, by the early 18th century the trade in books was rapidly expanding.

While in the 15th century the libraries around the monasteries, courts and universities of Western Europe contained no more than 5 million manuscripts, the output of printing presses in the 18th century alone exploded to formidable million volumes. Two social upheavals would start to change that. On 2 November the French revolutionary National Assembly passed a decision to seize all library holdings from the Church and aristocracy. At the same time capitalism was on the rise, particularly in England.

It massively displaced the impoverished rural population into growing urban centres, propelled the development of industrial production and, by the midth century, introduced the steam-powered rotary press into the commercial production of books. As books became more easily mass-produced, the commercial subscription libraries catering to the better-off parts of society blossomed. This brought the class aspect of the nascent demand for public access to books to the fore.

After the failed attempt to introduce universal suffrage and end the system of political representation based on property entitlements through the Reform Act of , the English Chartist movement started to open reading rooms and cooperative lending libraries that would quickly become a popular hotbed of social exchange between the lower classes.

In the aftermath of the revolutionary upheavals of , the fearful ruling classes finally consented to the demand for tax-financed public libraries, hoping that the access to literature and edification would after all help educate skilled workers that were increasingly in demand and ultimately hegemonize the working class for the benefits of capitalism's culture of self-interest and competition.

Various sets of these conditions that are at work in a particular library, also redefine the notion of publishing and of the publication, and in turn the notion of public. The education provided to the proletariat and the poor by the ruling classes of that time consisted, indeed, either of a pious moral edification serving political pacification or of an inculcation of skills and knowledge useful to the factory owner.

Even the seemingly noble efforts of the Society for the Diffusion of the Useful Knowledge, a Whig organization aimed at bringing high-brow learning to the middle and working classes in the form of simplified and inexpensive publications, were aimed at dulling the edge of radicalism of popular movements. The radical education, reliant on meagre resources and time of the working class, developed in the informal setting of household, neighbourhood and workplace, but also through radical press and communal reading and discussion groups.

A historical compromise between a push for radical pedagogy and a response to dull its edge. And yet with the age of digitization, where one would think that the opportunities for access to knowledge have expanded immensely, public libraries find themselves increasingly limited in their ability to acquire and lend both digital and paper editions. It is a sign of our radically unequal times that the political emancipation finds itself on a defensive fighting again for this material base of pedagogy against the rising forces of privatization.

Not only has mass education become accessible only under the condition of high fees, student debt and adjunct peonage, but the useful knowledge that the labour market and reproduction of the neoliberal capitalism demands has become the one and only rationale for education. The project Public Library was initiated with the counteraction in mind. To help everyone learn to use simple tools to be able to act as an Amateur Librarian — to digitize, to collect, to share, to preserve books and articles that were unaffordable, unavailable, undesirable in the troubled corners of the Earth we hail from.

Amateur Librarian played an important role in the narrative of Public Library. And it seems it was successful. Public Library detects an institutional crisis in education, an economic deadlock of austerity and a domination of commodity logic in the form of copyright.

To understand the political and technological assumptions and further develop the strategies that lie behind the counteractions of amateur librarians, we propose a curriculum that is indebted to a tradition of critical pedagogy. Critical pedagogy is a productive and theoretical practice rejecting an understanding of educational process that reduces it to a technique of imparting knowledge and a neutral mode of knowledge acquisition.

The denial of access to outrageously expensive academic publications for many universities, particularly in the Global South, stands in stark contrast to the super-profits that a small number of commercial publishers draws from the free labour of scientists who write, review and edit contributions and the extortive prices their institutional libraries have to pay for subscriptions. It is thus here that the amateur librarianship attains its poignancy for a critical pedagogy, inviting us to closer formulate and unfold its practices in a shared process of discovery.

The curriculum in amateur librarianship develops aspects and implications of this definition. Parts of this curriculum have evolved over a number of workshops and talks previously held within the Public Library project, parts of it are yet to evolve from a process of future research, exchange and knowledge production in the education process.

While schematic, scaling from the immediately practical, over strategic and tactical, to reflexive registers of knowledge, there are actual — here unnamed — people and practices we imagine we could be learning from. The first iteration of this curriculum could be either a summer academy rostered with our all-star team of librarians, designers, researchers and teachers, or a small workshop with a small group of students delving deeper into one particular aspect of the curriculum.

In short it is an open curriculum: both open to educational process and contributions by others. We welcome comments, derivations and additions. From Voor elk boek is een gebruiker: FS: Hoe gaan jullie om met boeken en publicaties die al vanaf het begin digitaal zijn? DM: We kopen e-books en e-tijdschriften en maken die beschikbaar voor onderzoekers. Maar dat zijn hele andere omgevingen, omdat die content niet fysiek binnen onze muren komt.

We kopen toegang tot servers van uitgevers of de aggregator. Die content komt nooit bij ons, die blijft op hun machines staan. We kunnen daar dus eigenlijk niet zoveel mee doen, behalve verwijzen en zorgen dat het evengoed vindbaar is als de print. Library as Infrastructure. Our beloved bookscanner. How to: Bookscanning. History of Libraries of the Western World. Henry A. From Amateur Librarian - A Course in Critical Pedagogy: No industry in the present demonstrates more the asymmetries of control over the conditions of production of knowledge than the academic publishing.

A bag but is language nothing of words language is nothing but a bag of words MICHAEL MURTAUGH In text indexing and other machine reading applications the term "bag of words" is frequently used to underscore how processing algorithms often represent text using a data structure word histograms or weighted vectors where the original order of the words in sentence form is stripped away.

While "bag of words" might well serve as a cautionary reminder to programmers of the essential violence perpetrated to a text and a call to critically question the efficacy of methods based on subsequent transformations, the expression's use seems in practice more like a badge of pride or a schoolyard taunt that would go: Hey language: you're nothin' but a big BAG-OF-WORDS.

BAG OF WORDS In information retrieval and other so-called machine-reading applications such as text indexing for web search engines the term "bag of words" is used to underscore how in the course of processing a text the original order of the words in sentence form is stripped away. The resulting representation is then a collection of each unique word used in the text, typically weighted by the number of times the word occurs. Bag of words, also known as word histograms or weighted term vectors, are a standard part of the data engineer's toolkit.

But why such a drastic transformation? The utility of "bag of words" is in how it makes text amenable to code, first in that it's very straightforward to implement the translation from a text document to a bag of words representation.

More P. For instance, a number of libraries available in the booming field of "data sciences" work with "high dimension" vectors; bag of words is a way to transform a written document into a mathematical vector where each "dimension" corresponds to the relative quantity of each unique word. While physically unimaginable and abstract imagine each of Shakespeare's works as points in a 14 million dimensional space , from a formal mathematical perspective, it's quite a comfortable idea, and many complementary techniques such as principle component analysis exist to reduce the resulting complexity.

What's striking about a bag of words representation, given is centrality in so many text retrieval application is its irreversibility. Given a bag of words representation of a text and faced with the task of producing the original text would require in essence the "brain" of a writer to recompose sentences, working with the patience of a devoted cryptogram puzzler to draw from the precise stock of available words.

While "bag of words" might well serve as a cautionary reminder to programmers of the essential violence perpetrated to a text and a call to critically question the efficacy of methods based on subsequent transformations, the expressions use seems in practice more like a badge of pride or a schoolyard taunt that would go: Hey language: you're nothing but a big BAG-OF-WORDS.

Following this spirit of the term, "bag of words" celebrates a perfunctory step of "breaking" a text into a purer form amenable to computation, to stripping language of its silly redundant repetitions and foolishly contrived stylistic phrasings to reveal a purer inner essence.

The idea was for both senders and receivers of telegraph messages to use the books to translate their messages into a sequence of code words which can then be sent for less money as telegraph messages were paid by the word. In the front of the book, a list of examples gives a sampling of how messages like: "Have bought for your account bales of cotton, March delivery, at 8. In each case the reduction of number of transmitted words is highlighted to underscore the efficacy of the method.

Like a dictionary or thesaurus, the book is primarily organized around key words, such as act, advice, affairs, bags, bail, and bales, under which exhaustive lists of useful phrases involving the corresponding word are provided in the main pages of the volume. The idea was to use a single code word instead of an entire phrase, thus saving money by serving as an information compression technology.

Generally economy won out over [2] secrecy, but in specialized cases, secrecy was also important. In Katherine Hayles' chapter devoted to telegraph code books she observes how: The interaction between code and language shows a steady movement away from a human-centric view of code toward a machine-centric view, thus anticipating the [3] development of full-fledged machine codes with the digital computer.

Aspects of this transitional moment are apparent in a notice included prominently inserted in the Lieber's code book: After July, , all combinations of letters that do not exceed ten will pass as one cipher word, provided that it is pronounceable, or that it is taken from the following languages: English, French, German, Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese or Latin -[4] International Telegraphic Conference, July Conforming to international conventions regulating telegraph communication at that time, the stipulation that code words be actual words drawn from a variety of European languages many of Lieber's code words are indeed arbitrary Dutch, German, and Spanish words P.

What telegraph code books do is remind us of is the relation of language in general to economy. Whether they may be economies of memory, attention, costs paid to a telecommunicatons company, or in terms of computer processing time or storage space, encoding language or knowledge in any form of writing is a form of shorthand and always involves an interplay with what one expects to perform or "get out" of the resulting encoding.

Along with the invention of telegraphic codes comes a paradox that John Guillory has noted: code can be used both to clarify and occlude. Among the sedimented structures in the technological unconscious is the dream of a universal language.

Uniting the world in networks of communication that flashed faster than ever before, telegraphy was particularly suited to the idea that intercultural communication could become almost effortless. In this utopian vision, the effects of continuous reciprocal causality expand to global proportions capable of radically transforming the conditions of human [5] life. That these dreams were never realized seems, in retrospect, inevitable. In addition to the phrases ordered by keywords, the book includes a number of tables of terms for specialized use.

From an archaeological perspective, the Lieber's code book reveals a cross section of the needs and desires of early 20th century business communication between the United States and its trading partners. The advertisements lining the Liebers Code book further situate its use and that of commercial telegraphy. Among the many advertisements for banking and law services, office equipment, and alcohol are several ads for gun powder and explosives, drilling equipment and metallurgic services all with specific applications to mining.

Extending telegraphy's formative role for ship-to-shore and ship-to-ship communication for reasons of safety, commercial telegraphy extended this network of communication to include those parties coordinating the "raw materials" being mined, grown, or otherwise extracted from overseas sources and shipped back for sale. We want unadulterated data. OK, we have to ask for raw data now. And I'm going to ask you to practice that, OK? Can you say "raw"? Audience: Raw.

Tim Berners-Lee: Can you say "data"? Audience: Data. TBL: Can you say "now"? Audience: Now! TBL: Alright, "raw data now"! From The Smart City - City of Knowledge: As new modernist forms and use of materials propagated the abundance of decorative elements, Otlet believed in the possibility of language as a model of 'raw data', reducing it to essential information and unambiguous facts, while removing all inefficient assets of ambiguity or subjectivity.

So, we're at the stage now where we have to do this -the people who think it's a great idea. And all the people -- and I think there's a lot of people at TED who do things because -- even though there's not an immediate return on the investment because it will only really pay off when everybody else has done it -- they'll do it because they're the sort of person who just does things which would be good if everybody else did them.

OK, so it's called linked data. I want [6] you to make it. I want you to demand it. However, this information is often scattered among many web servers and hosts, using many different formats. If these chunks of information could be extracted from the World Wide Web and integrated into a structured form, they would form an unprecedented source of information.

It would include the largest international directory of people, the largest and most diverse databases of products, the greatest bibliography of academic works, and many other useful resources. The "baskets" they mention stem from the origins of "market basket" techniques developed to find correlations between the items recorded in the purchase receipts of supermarket customers.

In their case, they deal with web pages rather than shopping baskets, and words instead of purchases. In transitioning to the much larger scale of the web, they describe the usefulness of their research in terms of its computational economy, that is the ability to tackle the scale of the web and still perform using contemporary computing power completing its task in a reasonably short amount of time. A traditional algorithm could not compute the large itemsets in the lifetime of the universe.

In this paper we experiment with word usage in documents on the World Wide Web see Section 4. This data set is fundamentally different from a supermarket data set. Each document has roughly distinct words on average, as compared to roughly 10 items for cash register transactions. We restrict ourselves to a subset of about 24 million documents from the web.

This set of documents contains over 14 million distinct words, with tens of thousands of them occurring above a reasonable support threshold. Very many sets of [9] these words are highly correlated and occur often. It goes something like this: you the programmer have managed to cobble out a lovely "content management system" either from scratch, or using any number of helpful frameworks where your user can enter some "items" into a database, for instance to store bookmarks.

After this ordered items are automatically presented in list form say on a web page. The author: It's great, except The problem stems from the fact that the database ordering a core functionality provided by any database somehow applies a sorting logic that's almost but not quite right.

The often exascerbated programmer might hastily add an additional database field so that each item can also have an "order" perhaps in the form of a date or some other kind of alpha numerical "sorting" value to be used to correctly order the resulting list. But one might well ask, why not just edit the resulting listing as a document? Not possible!

Contemporary content management systems are based on a data flow from a "pure" source of a database, through controlling code and templates to produce a document as a result. The document isn't the data, it's the end result of an irreversible process.

This problem, in this and many variants, is widespread and reveals an essential backwardness that a particular "computer scientist" mindset relating to what constitutes "data" and in particular it's relationship to order that makes what might be a straightforward question of editing a document into an over-engineered database. Recently working with Nikolaos Vogiatzis whose research explores playful and radically subjective alternatives to the list, Vogiatzis was struck by how from the earliest specifications of HTML still valid today have separate elements OL and UL for "ordered" and "unordered" lists.

The representation of the list is not defined here, but a bulleted list for unordered lists, and a sequence of numbered paragraphs for an ordered list would be quite appropriate. Vogiatzis' surprise lay in the idea of a list ever being considered "unordered" or in opposition to the language used in the specification, for order to ever be considered "insignificant". Indeed in its suggested representation, still followed by modern web browsers, the only difference between the two visually is that UL items are preceded by a bullet symbol, while OL items are numbered.

The idea of ordering runs deep in programming practice where essentially different data structures are employed depending on whether order is to be maintained. The indexes of a "hash" table, for instance also known as an associative array , are ordered in an unpredictable way governed by a representation's particular implementation. This data structure, extremely prevalent in contemporary programming practice sacrifices order to offer other kinds of efficiency fast text-based retrieval for instance.

Whether speaking of bales of cotton, barrels of oil, or bags of words, what links these subjects is the way in which the notion of "raw material" obscures the labor and power structures employed to secure them. The shift from human reading to machine reading involves a shift of responsibility from the individual human body to the obscured responsibilities and seemingly inevitable forces of the "machine", be it the machine of a market or the machine of an algorithm.

The computer scientists' view of textual content as "unstructured", be it in a webpage or the OCR scanned pages of a book, reflect a negligence to the processes and labor of writing, editing, design, layout, typesetting, and eventually publishing, collecting and cataloging [11]. This presence is proof of the materiality of information production, and becomes a sign of the economies and paradigms of efficiency and profitability that are involved.

Computer scientists often view text through the eyes of their particular reading algorithm, and in the process voluntarily blind themselves to the work practices which have produced and maintain these "resources". Berners-Lee, in chastising his audience of web publishers to not only publish online, but to release "unadulterated" data belies a lack of imagination in considering how language is itself structured and a blindness to the need for more than additional technical standards to connect to existing publishing practices.

Hayles 4. Lieber's 5. Hayles 6. Both types of texts are worth considering preserving in libraries. The online environment has created its own hybrid form between text and library, which is key to understanding how digital text produces difference. Historically, we have been treating texts as discrete units, that are distinguished by their material properties such as cover, binding, script.

These characteristics establish them as either a book, a magazine, a diary, sheet music and so on. One book differs from another, books differ from magazines, printed matter differs from handwritten manuscripts. Each volume is a self-contained whole, further distinguished by descriptors such as title, author, date, publisher, and classification codes that allow it to be located and referred to.

The demarcation of a publication as a container of text works as a frame or boundary which organises the way it can be located and read. Researching a particular subject matter, the reader is carried along by classification schemes under which volumes are organised, by references inside texts, pointing to yet other volumes, and by tables of contents and indexes of subjects that are appended to texts, pointing to places within that volume.

So while their material properties separate texts into distinct objects, bibliographic information provides each object with a unique identifier, a unique address in the world of print culture. Such identifiable objects are further replicated and distributed across containers that we call libraries, where they can be accessed.

The online environment however, intervenes in this condition. It establishes shortcuts. Through search engine, digital texts can be searched for any text sequence, regardless of their distinct materiality and bibliographic specificity. This changes the way they function as a library, and the way its main object, the book, should be rethought.

These are some of the lines along which online texts appear to produce difference. The first contrasts the distinct printed publication to the machine-readable text, the second the bibliographic information to the URL, and the third the library to the search engine.

The introduction of full-text search has created an environment in which all machine-readable online documents in reach are effectively treated as one single document. For any text-sequence to be locatable, it doesn't matter in which file format it appears, nor whether its interface is a database-powered website or mere directory listing. As long as text can be extracted from a document, it is a container of text sequences which itself is a sequence in a 'book' of the web.

Even though this is hardly news after almost two decades of Google Search ruling, little seems to have changed with respect to the forms and genres of writing. Loyal to standard forms of publishing, most writing still adheres to the principle of coherence, based on units such as book chapters, journal papers, newspaper articles, etc. From Voor elk boek is een gebruiker: FS: Maar het gaat toch ook over de manier waarop jullie toegang bieden, de bibliotheek als interface?

Online laten jullie dat nu over aan Google. Je kan doorheen al die collecties zoeken en dat is ook weer een stukje van die originele droom van Otlet en Vander Haeghen, het idee van een wereldbibliotheek. Voor elk boek is er een gebruiker, de bibliotheek moet die maar gaan zoeken. Dat is een andere manier van lezen die zelfs Otlet zich niet had kunnen voorstellen.

Ze zouden zot worden moesten ze dit weten. Still, the scope of textual forms appearing in search results, and thus a corpus of texts in which they are being brought into, is radically diversified: it may include discussion board comments, product reviews, private emails, weather information, spam etc.

Rather than being published in a traditional sense, all these texts are produced onto digital networks by mere typing, copying, OCR-ing, generated by machines, by sensors tracking movement, temperature, etc. Even though portions of these texts may come with human or non-human authors attached, authors have relatively little control over discourses their writing gets embedded in.

This is also where the ambiguity of copyright manifests itself. Libraries in this sense are not restricted to digitised versions of physical public or private libraries as we know them from history. Commercial search engines, intelligence agencies, and virtually all forms of online text collections can be thought of as libraries.

The author's intentions of partaking in this or that discourse are confronted by discourse-conditioning operations of retrieval algorithms. They are all libraries, each containing a single 'book' whose pages are URLs with timestamps and geostamps in the form of IP address.

The decisions about who, to which sections and under which conditions is to be admitted are From Amateur Librarian - A Course informed by a mix of copyright laws, corporate agendas, in Critical Pedagogy: management hierarchies, and national security issues. As books became more easily massVarious sets of these conditions that are at work in a produced, the commercial subscription libraries catering to the particular library, also redefine the notion of publishing better-off parts of society blossomed.

This brought the class aspect of the Corporate journal repositories exploit publicly funded research by renting it only to libraries which can afford it; intelligence agencies are set to extract texts from any moving target, basically any networked device, apparently in public interest and away from the public eye; publiclyfunded libraries are being prevented by outdated copyright laws and bureaucracy from providing digitised content online; search engines create a sense of giving access to all public record online while only a few know what is excluded and how search results are ordered.

Their countertechniques for negotiating the publicness of publishing include self-archiving, open access, book liberation, leaking, whistleblowing, open source search algorithms and so on. Digitization and posting texts online are interventions in the procedures that make search possible.

Operating online collections of texts is as much about organising texts within libraries, as is placing them within books of the web. Originally written June in Prague, Brno and Vienna for a talk given at the Technopolitics seminar in Vienna on 16 June Revised 29 December in Bergen. That evening the sun was tender in drawing its shadows across the lines of his face. The eyes gazed softly into a close middle distance, as if composing a line upon a translucent page hung in the middle of the air, the hands tapping out a stanza or two of music on legs covered by the brown folds of a towelling dressing gown.

He had the air of someone who had seen something of great amazement but yet lacked the means to put it into language. As I got to know the patient over the next few weeks I learned that this was not for the want of effort. Latin biological names, the magnificent table of elements, metric units of measurement, the nomenclature of celestial objects from clouds to planets, anatomical parts and medical conditions all had their own systems of naming beyond any specific tongue. This was an attempt to bring reason into speech and record, but there were other means to do so when reality resisted these early measures.

The dabbling, he reflected, had become a little more than that. He had subscribed to journals in the language, he wrote letters to colleagues and received them in return. A few words of world-speak remained readily on his tongue, words that he spat out regularly into the yellow-wallpapered lounge of the sanatorium with a disgust that was lugubriously palpable. According to my records, and in piecing together the notes of previous doctors, there was something else however, something more profound that the language only hinted at.

Just as the postal system did not require the adoption of any language in particular but had its P. More thrilling than the question of language indeed was that of the system of organisation upon which linguistic symbols are inscribed. Suffice it to say that in its use I enjoyed the highest form of spiritual pleasure, and organisational efficiency, a profound flowering of intellect in which every thought moved between its enunciation, evidence, reference and articulation in a mellifluous flow of ideation and the gratification of curiosity.

All were integrated into the system. As I gained the trust of the patient, there was a sense in which he estimated me as something of a junior collaborator, a clerk to his natural role as manager. A lucky, if slightly doubtful, young man whom he might mentor into efficiency and a state of full access to information.

For his world, there was not the corruption and tiredness of the old methods. Ideas moved faster in his mind than they might now across the world. That it can answer any question respecting any thought about which one has had an enquiry is but the smallest of its merits. More important is the fact that it continually calls attention to matters requiring such attention.

Much of his discourse was about the optimum means of arrangement of the system, there was an art to laying out the cards. As the patient further explained, to meet the objection that loose cards may easily be mislaid, cards may be tabbed with numbers from one to ten.

When arranged in the drawer, these tabs proceed from left to right across the drawer and the absence of a single card can thus easily be detected. The cards are further arranged between coloured guide cards. As an alternative to tabbed cards, signal flags may be used.

Here, metal clips may be attached to the top end of the card and that stand out like guides. For use of the system in relation to dates of the month, the card is printed with the numbers 1 to 31 at the top. The metal clip is placed as a signal to indicate the card is to receive attention on the specified day. There were numerous means of working the cards, special techniques for integrating them into any type of research or organisation, means by which indexes operating on indexes could open mines of information and expand the knowledge and capabilities of mankind.

The advantages of the system are overwhelming. Cards, cut to the right mathematical degree of accuracy, arrayed readily in drawers, set in cabinets of standard sizes that may be added to at ease, may be apportioned out amongst any number of enquirers, all of whom may work on them independently and simultaneously. The bound book, by contrast, may only be used by one person at a time and that must stay upon a shelf itself referred to by an index card system. I began to set up a structure of rows of mirrors on chains and pulleys and a set of levered and hinged mechanical arms to allow me to open the drawers and to privately consult my files from any location within the sanatorium.

The clarity of the image is however so far too much effaced by the diffusion of light across the system. It must further be borne in mind that a system thus capable of indefinite expansion obviates the necessity for hampering a researcher with furniture or appliances of a larger size than are immediately required.

The continuous and orderly sequence of the cards may be extended further into the domain of furniture and to the conduct of business and daily life. Reasoning, reference and the order of ideas emerging as they embrace and articulate a chaotic world and then communicate amongst themselves turning the world in turn into something resembling the process of thought in an endless process of consulting, rephrasing, adding and sorting. For the patient, ideas flowed like a force of life, oblivious to any unnatural limitation.

Thought became, with the proper use of the system, part of the stream of life itself. Thought moved through the cards not simply at the superficial level of the movement of fingers and the mechanical sliding and bunching of cards, but at the most profound depths of the movement P. The organisational grace to be found in arrangement, classification and indexing still stirred the remnants of his nervous system until the last day.

Upon closer investigation, it has become evident that the mixed contents of the box make up one single document. Difficult to decipher due to messy handwriting, the manuscript poses further challenges to the reader because its fragments lack a preestablished order. Simply uploading high-quality facsimile images of the box contents here would not solve the problems of legibility and coherence.

As an intermediary solution, the editor has opted to introduce below a selection of scanned images and transcribed text from the found box. The transcript is intended to be read as a document sample, as well as an attempt at manuscript reconstruction, following the original in the author's hand as closely as possible: pencilled in words in the otherwise black ink text are transcribed in brackets, whereas curly braces signal erasures, peculiar marks or illegible parts on the index cards.

Despite shifts in handwriting styles, whereby letters sometimes appear extremely rushed and distorted in multiple idiosyncratic ways, the experts consulted unanimously declared that the manuscript was most likely authored by one and the same person. To date, the author remains unknown. Q I've been running with a word in my mouth, running with this burning untitled shape, and I just can't spit it out. Spit it with phlegm from a balcony, kiss it in a mirror, brush it away one morning.

I've been running with a word in my mouth, running Tunneling through my memory, my tongue begins burning again and so I recollect that the subject matter was an agonizing, unutterable obsession I needed to sort out most urgently. Back then I knew no better way than to keep bringing it up obliquely until it would chemically dissolve itself into my blood or evaporate through the pores of my skin.

An anti-incantation, a verbal overdose, a semantic dilution or reduction — for the first time, I was ready to inflict harm on words! All this unusual business must have carried on untroubled for some time until that Wed. Do you know how worrisome I find the new warning on the elevator doors? Has there been an accident?

Or is this simply an insurance disclaimer-trick? Oddly, not the faintest or most bored acknowledgment of my inquiry or presence came from across the desk. From where I was standing, I performed a quick check to see if any cables came out of the receptionist's ears. Channels unobstructed, no ear mufflers, no micro-devices. Suspicion eliminated, I waved at him, emitted a few other sounds — all to no avail. My tunnel-visioned receptionist rolled his chair even closer to one of the many monitors under his hooked gaze, his visual field now narrowed to a very acute angle, sheltered by his high desk.

How well I can still remember that at that exact moment I wished my face would turn into the widest, most expensive screen, with an imperative, hairy ticker at the bottom — h e y t o u c h m y s c r e e n m y m u s t a c h e s c r e e n e l e v a t o r t o u c h d o w n s c r e a m J That's one of the first red flags I remember in this situation here, really starting to come across more or less as a story : a feeling of being silenced by the building I inhabited.

In any case, t]hat day, I had been forewarned, but I failed to understand. As soon as I pushed the revolving door and left the building with a wry smile [on my face], the traffic outside wolfed down the warning. No longer do I feel pain on my tongue, only a tinge of volcanic ash as an aftermath of this defeat. U I've been running with a word in my mouth, running with this burning untitled shape, and I just can't spit it out.

It has become my tooth, rooted in my nervous system. My word of mouth. P Since then, my present has turned into an obscure hole, and I can't climb out of it. Most of the time, I'm sitting at the bottom of this narrow oubliette, teeth in knees, scribbling notes with my body in a terribly twisted position. And when I'm not sitting, I'm forced to jump. Agonizing thoughts numb my limbs so much so that I feel my legs turning to stone. On some days I look up, terrified.

I can't even make out whether the diffuse opening is egg- or squareshaped, but there's definitely a peculiar tic-tac sequence interspersed with neighs that my pricked ears are picking up on. A sound umbrella, hovering somewhere up there, high above my imploded horizon. When I first noticed the sound, its circular cadence was soft and unobtrusive, almost protective, but now the more laps the clock-horse is running, the deeper the ticking and the neighing sounds are drilling into the hole.

I picture this as an ever rotating metal worm inside a mincing machine. If I point my chin up, it bores through my throat! Following this not entirely bleak hypothesis, the oubliette I'm trapped in translates to an explainable state of blackout and all the ticking and the drilling could easily find their counterparts in the host of medical devices and their noise-making that support a comatose person.

After all, I am not made of black pencil or cardboard or paper. Despite this conclusion, the effort has left me sulking for hours without being able to scribble anything, overwhelmed by a sensation of being pinched and pulled sideways by dark particles inside the mineral dampness of this open tomb.

What's the use of a vertical territory if you can't sniff it all the way up? I It's a humongous workplace, with a blue entrance door, cluttered with papers on both sides. Left hand on the entrance door handle, the woman presses it and the three of them [guiding co-worker, faceless cameraman, scarlet-haired interviewer] squeeze themselves P.

It's still her. Exploring leftovers around here can go up and down to horrifying and overwhelming sensorial levels The chances of finding us? Things are not lost; there are just different ways of finding them. A random stroll, a lucky find — be that on-line or off-line —, or a seductive word of mouth may be the entrance points into this experiential space, a manifesto for haphazardness, emotional intuitions, subversion of neural pathways, and non-productive attitudes. A dadaist archive?

Ours is definitely not an archive, there's no trace of pyramidal bureaucracy or taxonomy here, no nation state at its birth. Hence you won't find a reservoir for national or racial histories in here. Just imagine we changed perception scales, imagine a collective cut-up project that we, chaos workers, are bringing together without scissors or screwdrivers because all that gets through that blue door [and that is the only condition and standard] has already been shaped and fits in here.

Interview continues, but she forgets to mention that behind the blue door, in this very big box 1. Although it is the Institute's policy to accept paper donations only from private individuals, it occasionally makes exceptions and takes on leftovers from nonprofit organizations. Each time this happens, an extended rite of passage follows so as to slightly delay and thereby ease the arrival of chaos bits: the most reliable chaos worker, Microexpressionist by metonymically selected feature, supervises the transfer of boxes at the very beginning of a long hallway [eyeballs moving left to right, head planted in an incredibly stiff neck].

Then, some fifty meters away, standing in front of the opened blue door, Puckered Lips welcomes newcomers into the chaos, his gestures those of a marshaller guiding a plane into a parking position. But once the gray [? Everyone's free to grow limbs and choose temporal neighbors. L … seated cross-legged at the longest desk ever, Ragged Mane is randomly extracting photodocuments from the freshest chaos segment with a metallic extension of two of her fingers [instead of a pince-nez, she's the one to carry a pair of tweezers in a small pocket at all times].

Two mustaches, one hat, three pairs of glasses, some blurred figures in the background, and one most fascinating detail! Afterward, eyes split again and roll on the surface of the photograph like black-eyed peas on a kitchen table.

On the outside it's spotted with straddled city topographies, inside, it's filled with a vernacular accumulation of anational dust without a trace of usable pasts. Early on, the commentator breaks into unwitty superlatives and platitudes, while the soundtrack unnecessarily dramatizes a 3D layering of the city structure. Despite all this, the mood on the couch is patient, and viewers seem to absorb the vignetted film. Hence, reading the city acquires a literal dimension, skyscrapers echo clustered block letters on a line, and the pedestrian reader gets reduced to the size of a far-sighted microbe.

A foreboding district for newlyweds? In terms of real proportions, the size of a mailbox- or a drawer-apartment is comparable to that P. In fact, take out all that you need and once you feel relieved, exchange personas as if in an emergency situation. Then, behind vermillion curtains, replace pronouns at will. An intubated wish for character replacement? Pale, you might think, how pallid and lifeless they appear to be, but try to hold their gaze and notice how the interaction grows uncomfortable through persistence.

Blink, if you must. Move your weight from one leg to the other, and become aware of how unflinching their concentration remains, as if their eyes are lured into a screen. And as you're trying to draw attention to yourself by making ampler, pantomimic gestures, your hands touch the dark inner edges of the monitor you're [boxed] in. Look out and around again and again If I were in shape, attuned and wired to my perception angles and sensors, I could identify beyond precision that it is a cabal plotting I begin fearing.

Lately, it's all been going really awry. C Out of the blue, the clock-horse dislocated particles expand in size, circle in all directions like giant flies around a street lamp, and then in the most predictable fashion, they collide with my escapist reminiscences multiple times until I lose connection and the landscape above comes to a [menacing] stillness.

Proportions have inverted, scraped surfaces have commingled and my U-shaped. I can't find my hands! For information on document location or transcription method, kindly contact the editor. The quantity of similar words relates to the word-count of the texts, which means that each appearance has a different weight. Beyond the mere quantified use of a common language, this list follows the intuition that there is something more to elaborate in the discourse between these two utopians.

One possible reading can be found in The Smart City, an essay that traces their encounter. Prenons l'exemple des aparitions du mot esprit par exemple sont plus significatives dans Vers une Architecture P. Wordcount: Word-count: A good example is a scene from the video "From industrial heartland to the Internet age", published by The Mundaneum, , where the drawers of Mundaneum disambiguation: Otlet's Utopia morph into the servers of one of Google's data centres.

This approach is not limited to images: a recurring discourse that shapes some of the exhibitions taking place in the Mundaneum maintains that the dream of the Belgian utopian has been kept alive in the development of internetworked communications, and currently finds its spitiual successor in the products and services of Google. Even though there are many connections and similarities between the two endeavours, one has to acknowledge that Otlet was an internationalist, a socialist, an utopian, that his projects were not profit oriented, and most importantly, that he was living in the temporal and cultural context of modernism at the beginning of the 20th century.

The constructed identities and continuities that detach Otlet and the Mundaneum from a specific historical frame, ignore the different scientific, social and political milieus involved. It means that these narratives exclude the discording or disturbing elements that are inevitable when considering such a complex figure in its entirety.

This is not surprising, seeing the parties that are involved in the discourse: these types of instrumental identities and differences suit the rhetorical tone of Silicon Valley. Newly launched IT products for example, are often described as groundbreaking, innovative and different from anything seen before. In other situations, those products could be advertised exactly the same, as something else that already exists[1]. While novelty and difference surprise and amaze, sameness reassures and comforts.

The samenessdifference duo fulfils a clear function: on the one hand, it suggests that technological advancements might alter the way we live dramatically, and we should be ready to give up our old-fashioned ideas about life and culture for the sake of innovation. On the other hand, it proposes we should not be worried about change, and that society has always evolved through disruptions, undoubtedly for the better.

For each questionable groundbreaking new invention, there is a previous one with the same ideal, potentially with just as many critics Great minds think alike, after all. This sort of a-historical attitude pervades techno-capitalist milieus, creating a cartoonesque view of the past, punctuated by great men and great inventions, a sort of technological variant of Carlyle's Great Man Theory.

This instrumental reading of the past is largely consistent with the theoretical ground on which the Californian Ideology[2] is based, in which the conception of history is pervaded by various strains of technological determinism from Marshall McLuhan to Alvin Toffler[3] and capitalist individualism in generic neoliberal terms, up to the fervent objectivism of Ayn Rand.

The appropriation of Paul Otlet's figure as Google's grandfather is a historical simplification, and the samenesses in this tale are not without fundament. Many concepts and ideals of documentation theories have reappeared in cybernetics and information theory, and are therefore present in the narrative of many IT corporations, as in Mountain View's case.

With the intention of restoring a historical complexity, it might be more interesting to play the exactly the same game ourselves, rather than try to dispel the advertised continuum of the Google on paper. Choosing to focus on other types of analogies in the story, we can maybe contribute a narrative that is more respectful to the complexity of the past, and more telling about the problems of the present. What followings are three such comparisons, which focus on three aspects of continuity between the documentation theories and archival experiments Otlet was involved in, and the cybernetic theories and practices that Google's capitalist enterprise is an exponent of.

The First one takes a look at the conditions of workers in information infrastructures, who are fundamental for these systems to work but often forgotten or displaced. Next, an account of the elements of distribution and control that appear both in the idea of a Reseau Mundaneum , and in the contemporary functioning of data centres, and the resulting interaction with other types of infrastructures. Finally, there is a brief analysis of the two approaches to the 'organization of world's knowledge', which examines their regimes of truth and the issues that P.

Hopefully these three short pieces can provide some additional ingredients for adulterating the sterile recipe of the Google-Otlet sameness. In a drawing titled Laboratorium Mundaneum, Paul Otlet depicted his project as a massive factory, processing books and other documents into end products, rolled out by a UDC locomotive. In fact, just like a factory, Mundaneum was dependent on the bureaucratic and logistic modes of organization of labour developed for industrial production.

Looking at it and at other written and drawn sketches, one might ask: who made up the workforce of these factories? In this beautiful group picture, we notice that the workforce that kept the archival machine running was made up of women, but we do not know much about them.

As in telephone switching systems or early software development[5], gender stereotypes and discrimination led to the appointment of female workers for repetitive tasks that required specific knowledge and precision. Notwithstanding the incredible advancement of information technologies and the automation of innumerable tasks in collectiong, processing and distributing information, we can observe the same pattern today. All automatic repetitive tasks that technology should be able to do for us are still, one way or another, relying on human labour.

And unlike the industrial worker who obtained recognition through political movements and struggles, the role of many cognitive workers is still hidden or under-represented. Computational linguistics, neural networks, optical character recognition, all amazing machinic operations are still based on humans performing huge amounts of repetitive intellectual tasks from which software can learn, or which software can't do with the same efficiency.

Automation didn't really free us from labour, it just shifted the where, when and who of labour. Mechanical turks, content verifiers, annotators of all kinds The software we use requires a multitude of tasks which are invisible to us, but are still accomplished by humans.

Who are they? When possible, work is outsourced to foreign English-speaking countries with lower wages, like India. In the western world it follows the usual pattern: female, lower income, ethnic minorities. An interesting case of heteromated labour are the socalled Scanops[7], a set of Google workers who have a different type of badge and are isolated in a section of the Mountain View complex secluded from the rest of the workers through strict access permissions and fixed time schedules.

Their work consists of scanning the pages of printed books for the Google Books database, a task that is still more convenient to do by hand especially in the case of rare or fragile books. The workers are mostly women and ethnic minorities, and there is no mention of them on the Google Books website or elsewhere; in fact the whole scanning process is kept secret. Even though the secrecy that surrounds this type of labour can be justified by the need to protect trade secrets, it again conceals the human element in machine work.

This is even more obvious when compared to other types of human workers in the project, such as designers and programmers, who are celebrated for their creativity and ingenuity. However, here and there, evidence of the workforce shows up in the result of their labour.

Photos of Google Books employee's hands sometimes mistakenly end up in the digital version of the book online[8]. Whether the tendency to hide the human presence is due to the unfulfilled wish for total automation, to avoid the bad publicity of low wages and precarious work, or to keep an aura of mystery around machines, remains unclear, both in the case of Google Books and the P.

Still, it is reassuring to know that the products hold traces of the work, that even with the progressive removal of human signs in automated processes, the workers' presence never disappears completely. This presence is proof of the materiality of information production, and becomes a sign in a webpage or the OCR scanned pages of a book, reflect a negligence to the processes and labor of writing, editing, design, layout, typesetting, and eventually publishing, collecting and [9] cataloging.

In , while Prime Minister Di Rupo was celebrating the beginning of the second phase of constructing the Saint Ghislain data centre, a few hundred kilometres away a very similar situation started to unroll. In the municipality of Eemsmond, in the Dutch province of Groningen, the local Groningen Sea Ports and NOM development were rumoured to have plans with another code named company, Saturn, to build a data centre in the small port of Eemshaven.

A few months later, when it was revealed that Google was behind Saturn, Harm Post, director of Groningen Sea Ports, commented: "Ten years ago Eemshaven became the laughing stock of ports and industrial development in the Netherlands, a planning failure of the previous century.

And now Google is building a very large data centre here, which is 'pure advertisement' for Eemshaven and the data port. Yet another territory fortunately chosen by Google, just like Mons, but what are the selection criteria? For one thing, data centres need to interact with existing infrastructures and flows of various type. Technically speaking, there are three prerequisites: being near a substantial source of electrical power the finished installation will consume twice as much as the whole city of Groningen ; being near a source of clean water, for the massive cooling demands; being near Internet infrastructure that can assure adequate connectivity.

There is also a whole set of non-technical elements, that we can sum up as the social, economical and political climate, which proved favourable both in Mons and Eemshaven. The push behind constructing new sites in new locations, rather expanding existing ones, is partly due to the rapid growth of the importance of Software as a service, so-called cloud computing, which is the rental of computational power from a central provider. With the rise of the SaaS paradigm the geographical and topological placement of data centres becomes of strategic importance to achieve lower latencies and more stable service.

This includes buying leftover fibre networks[11], entering the business of underwater sea cables[12] and building new data centres, including the ones in Mons and Eemshaven. The spread of data centres around the world, along the main network cables across continents, represents a new phase in the diagram of the Internet. This should not be confused with the idea of decentralization that was a cornerstone value in the early stages of interconnected networks.

Paradoxically, it is now the growing centralization of all kind of operations in specific buildings, that is fostering their distribution. Beique-Demers, Agnes. Beketova, Ekaterina. Belanger, Vincent. Belcari, Feo. Beleznay, Antal. Belgum, Erik. Bell, Allan Gordon. Bell, Lori. Bella, Jan Levoslav. Bella, Mate. Belletti, Antonio.

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Bible, New Testament. Bible, Old Testament. Bierbaum, Otto Julius. Bigatti, Antonio. Biggs, Christopher. Bigney, Alex. Bigney, Simeon. Bildstein, Hieronymous. Billingsley, William. Binchois, Gilles de Bins dit. Bingham, Judith. Birchall, Richard. Bird, William Hamilton. Birman, Eugene. Birtwistle, Harrison. Bisbee, B. Bischof, Rainer. Bishop, Henry. Bissoli, Andrea. Bitran, Alvaro. Bitti, Martino. Bittova, Iva. Bixio, Cesare Andrea.

Bizet, George. Bizet, Georges. Bjarnason, Daniel. Bjurling, Bjorn. Blacher, Boris. Blackford, Dick. Blackhall, Andrew. Blake, Braxton. Blake, Howard. Blake, William. Blanc, Adolphe. Blanchet, Helene. Blanco, Josef. Blane, Ralph. Blank, William. Blankes, Edward. Blasco, Manuel. Blatner, Barbara. Blavet, Michel. Blazejczyk, Wojciech.

Blazusiakowna, Helena Wanda. Blecharz, Wojciech. Bleyer, Nicolaus. Bliss, Arthur. Bliss, Julian. Bliss, Philip Paul. Bloch, Ernest. Bloch, Thomas. Block, Mike. Block, Steven D. Blockx, Jan. Blok, Alexander. Blok, Vladimir. Blomdahl, Tony. Blow, John. Blumenfeld, Felix. Blumentahler, Volker. Blumenthaler, Volker. Blythe, Arthur. Bobrowicz, Jan Nepomucen. Boccadoro, Carlo. Boccardi, Michelangelo. Boccherini, Luigi. Bock, Jerry. Bock, Lois. Boddecker, Philipp Friedrich.

Boden, Mark David. Bodenschatz, Erhard. Bodin, Lars-Gunnar. Bodoczy, Istvan. Bodorova, Sylvie. Bodtker, Ellen Sejersted. Boehm, Theobald. Boeke, Kees. Boekhoorn, Oliver. Boellmann, Leon. Boesset, Antoine. Bogar, Ignak. Bogar, Istvan. Bogdanovic, Dusan. Bohm, Theobald.

Boisdeffre, Rene de. Boismortier, Joseph Bodin de. Bojtos, Karoly. Bolcom, William. Bolis, Sebastiano. Bolzoni, Giovanni. Bon, Anna. Bonacossa, Federico Jes. Bonazzi, Ferdinando. Bonelli, Aurelio. Bonelli, E. Bonfa, Luiz. Bongartz, Markus. Bonime, Joseph. Bonis, Melanie. Bonneau, Paul. Bonnieres, Robert de. Bonometti, Claudio.

Bononcini, Antonio Maria. Bononcini, Giovanni. Bononcini, Giovanni Maria. Bonporti, Francesco Antonio. Boothby, Richard. Boquet, Pascale. Borch, Thora. Borchgrevinck, Melchior. Bordes, Charles. Borenstein, Nimrod. Borg, Matti. Borisova-Ollas, Victoria. Borisovsky, Vadim. Borne, Francois.

Borodin, Alexander Porfir'yevich. Borregaard, Andreas. Borris, Siegfried. Borrono, Pietro Paolo. Bortkiewicz, Sergei. Boruth, Elemer. Borza, Adrian. Bosch, Maura. Bose, Hans-Jurgen von. Bossi, Marco Enrico. Bosso, Jorge. Botella, Jaime. Both, Heinz. Bottegari, Cosimo. Bottermund, Hans. Bottesini, Giovanni. Botti, Cardenio. Bouchard, Jean Pierre. Bouchard, Linda. Bouchor, Maurice. Boulanger, Ernest Henri Alexandre. Boulanger, Georges. Boulanger, Lili. Boulanger, Lucile. Boulanger, Nadia.

Boulez, Pierre. Bouliane, Denys. Bourdeau, Eugene. Bourgeois, Derek. Bourget, Paul. Bournisien, Marie. Bousset, Jean-Baptiste de. Boustead, Alan. Boutry, Roger. Bovicelli, Giovanni Battista. Bowen, York. Bowles, Paul. Boyce, William. Boyd, Michael. Boyd, Rupert. Boyde, Andreas. Boyer, Jean. Boyer, Justin. Boyle, Benjamin C. Boyle, Rory. Bozay, Attila. Bozzani, Daniel. Bradbury, John. Bradbury, William Batchelder. Braddock, Bobby. Brade, William. Brady, Tim. Braga Santos, Joly. Braga, Douglas.

Braga, Gaetano. Bragato, Jose. Brahms, Johannes. Braid, David. Branca, Glenn. Brand, David. Brandao, Jose Vieira. Brandimarte, Michelangelo. Brandl, Johann. Brandl, Johann Evangelist. Brandmann, Israel. Brandon, Jenni. Brandts Buys, Jan. Brandukov, Anatoly Andreyevich. Branka, Frantisek. Brasolim, Alexandre. Brass, Nikolaus. Braun, Jean-Daniel. Braun, Wolfgang. Braun, Yehezkel.

Brauneis, Jr. Braunfels, Walter. Brauth, Breno. Braxton, Anthony. Bray, Charlotte. Breier, Albert. Breiner, Peter. Brekoulias, P. Brescianello, Giuseppe Antonio. Bresciani, Vittorio. Bresnick, Martin. Breton, Tomas. Breville, Pierre de. Brewer, Alfred Herbert. Brian, Havergal. Briccialdi, Giulio.

Briceno, Luis de. Brickle, Frank. Brickman, Scott. Bridge, Frank. Brinch, Gregers. Brings, Allen. Brito, Estevao de. Britten, Benjamin. Brixien, Antonius Capreolus. Brochus, Johannes. Brockes, Barthold Heinrich. Brod, Henri. Brodmann, Hans-Gunter. Brodsky, Joseph. Brom, Roland.

Brommare, Niklas. Bronnimann, Markus. Brookshire, Cody. Brophy, Gerard. Broschi, Riccardo. Brossard, Sebastien de. Brostrom, Tobias. Brotons, Salvador. Brough, Harvey. Brouwer, Leo. Brouwer, Margaret. Brown, Earle. Brown, Eliza. Brown, James Francis. Brown, Michael. Brown, Oscar Jr. Brubeck, Dave. Bruce, David. Bruch, Max. Bruchmann, Franz Seraph Ritter von. Bruck, Arnold von.

Bruckner, Anton. Bruckner, Marianne. Bruecquet, Vincenet du. Bruhne, Lothar. Bruhns, Nicolaus. Bruijn, Cor de. Brumby, Colin. Brumel, Antoine. Brunauer, Tibor. Brunetti, Gaetano. Bruni, Antonio Bartolomeo. Brunner, Eduard. Bruno-Videla, Lucio. Bruttger, Thomas. Bruun, Peter. Bryan, Richard. Bryant, Alexandra. Bryars, Gavin.

Brydern, Benedikt. Bryne, Albertus. Bryusov, Valeriy Lakovlevich. Buchner, Georg. Buchner, Philipp Friedrich. Bucht, Gunnar. Buchtel, Forrest. Buckley, Jeff. Buckwalter, Karen Laney. Budai, Pal. Budasz, Rogerio.

Budde, Kurt. Bujarski, Zbigniew. Bull, John. Bulla, Stephen. Bullock, Whitney. Bulman, Baruch. Bunch, James. Bunch, Kenji. Bunin, Ivan Alekseyevich. Buonamente, Giovanni Battista. Buonarotti, Michelangelo. Burgess, Anthony. Burgin, Michael. Burgmuller, Johann Friedrich Franz. Burgmuller, Norbert. Burgstahler, Elton E. Burhans, Caleb. Burian, Emil Frantisek. Burkali, Theodor. Burke, John. Burke, Johnny. Burkhalter, Lamar. Burkhard, Simon.

Burkhard, Willy. Burkhart, Franz. Burleigh, Cecil. Burmeister, Joachim. Burmeister, Willy. Burmester, Willy. Burney, Charles. Burns, Robert. Bursuc, Dan. Burton, Daniel. Burzellis, Pietrobono de. Busatti, Cherubino. Busby, Gerald. Busch, Adolf. Busch, Johann Georg. Busch, William. Busenello, Giovanni Francesco. Bush, Geoffrey. Bush, Kate. Busi, Giuseppe. Busk, Nikolaj. Busnois, Antoine. Busnoys, Antoine. Buson, Yosa. Busoni, Ferruccio. Buss, Howard. Busser, Henri. Buti, Francesco.

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Caccini, Francesca. Caccini, Giulio. Caceres, Abraham. Cadman, Charles Wakefield. Caffagni, Claudia. Cage, John. Cahn, William. Cahusac, Louis de. Cahuzac, Louis. Caietain, Fabrice Marin. Cailo, Giovanni Carlo. Cain, Jonathan. Caine, Uri. Caix d'Hervelois, Louis de. Calace, Raffaele. Caldara, Antonio. Calderon, Claudia. Caldini, Fulvio. Califano, Arcangelo. Call, Leonhard von. Callahan, F. Callender, Clifton. Caltabiano, Ronald. Calvi, Carlo. Calvisius, Sethus.

Cambell, Arthur. Cambini, Giuseppe Maria. Camden, Anthony. Camerloher, Placidus von. Cameron, John. Camillo Sivori. Cammarano, Salvadore. Campagnoli, Bartolomeo. Campbell, Alexander Chapman. Campbell, Chris. Campbell, Christopher. Campion, Thomas. Campo, Conrado del.

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