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Mr Bongo keep the hits coming with a welcome reissue of Burnier & Cartier's self-titled LP, which has soared to the top of many a wantlist after appearing. As Ruy Castro put it, “What they played wasn't exactly the featherweight bossa nova played by Jobim, João Gilberto, Roberto Menescal, and Milton Banana.


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Madrid and Robin D. The dedication of librarians has been a vital source of consistency over many moves and upheavals. Much of the historical research for this book was conducted at the libraries and special collections at the University of California, Los Angeles including Music Special Collections and the Film and Television Archive , which served as a major font of resources well after I completed my studies.

A special thank you goes to the staff at the main branch of the Boston Public Library and at the British Library who kept historical music periodicals in excellent condition. At New College of Florida, Caroline Reed helped me to hunt down sources for the first stages of writing. More recently, Carol Lubkowski, the Wellesley College music librarian, helped with some vexing research questions.

Many institutions have funded the research that went into this book. I was fortunate to have Timothy Taylor as the chair of my committee, and his ideas still shape much of my thinking. His unwavering support and candid assessment of my work were just what I needed through my years of contingent academic employment. I have benefited greatly from the conversations and hospitality of many people in Brazil.

To my collaborators working in the Brazilian music industries: I have met with many of you over the years, and it still baffles the mind that you entertained so many of my questions. I also benefited from a broader social network that made the practicalities of living in Brazil possible. I am indebted to the many who lent me far more support than I ever expected. Maribeth Clark showed unparalleled generosity and I benefited from timely advice from J. Griffith Rollefson and Hettie Malcomson.

Early versions of this research first appeared as invited presentations and colloquia. Many people read early drafts of this book. Allie, in particular, helped to make the manuscript more readable to a nonacademic audience and also helped with image formatting. Silvers, and Benjamin Tausig read drafts of chapters and provided crucial feedback at various stages.

You all showed boundless generosity and patience with this project. Finally, I feel especially grateful to Josh Rutner as an editor and indexer. His experience, musical knowledge, and sense of humor made the revision process much more enjoyable. My colleagues at Wellesley College have given me a scholarly home that provided much needed stability to complete this project.

Special thanks to Gurminder Bhogal and Claire Fontijn for advice on book contracts and publishing and to Jenny Olivia Johnson for camaraderie on broader questions of contemporary music, career, and pacing. There is a broad network of music scholars who have helped me to develop ideas while also providing me with a sense of community. Charles Kronengold and Darien Lamen generously shared drafts of unpublished work. Eric Weisbard and Theo Cateforis lent me their perspective on pop criticism of the s.

In the world of Brazilian music scholars, I have been mentored by Jason Stanyek and Frederick Moehn in an unofficial capacity since my earliest years as a graduate student. Thank you to my editor, Suzanne Ryan, who believed in this project from the first time we talked in and who entertained numerous developmental meetings over the years.

Thanks also to Walter Clark who initially expressed interest for it in the CLAIMS series and to Alejandro Madrid for steering the project through to completion when he took over as series editor. Alejandro has been a mentor and colleague since and his guidance through this process has been reassuring. This project would have been impossible without family broadly conceived. Thank you to my parents, my sister Amy, her husband Barry, and Nina and Evan for keeping me grounded. Thank you to Esther, for your enthusiasm and teaching me important things about who I am.

To Brett, for all of the music nerdery over the years. Sophie Gamwell has done far more for this project than can be listed here. Although trained in a different field, she never wavered in her support for my ideas and always urged me to state boldly why they matter. In the year leading up to the World Cup soccer tournament, numerous Brazilian musical artists took part in a competition to provide the official FIFA World Cup song for the legions of international football fans descending upon the country.

The compositional and recording process of the song is transnational at its core. It also reveals the intersection of Brazilian cultural policy and corporate interest. Goldschmitt, Oxford University Press DOI: The first iteration of the song was released domestically in Brazil in and featured Portuguese vocals by Gaby Amarantos.

During my early research trips to Brazil, in and , music industry workers described tecnobrega as one of many marginal genres not worth record label investment due to its legally dubious practices and links to musical piracy networks, all of which was meant to circumvent traditional revenue models.

However, a number of Brazilian scholars Lemos and Castro ; Guerreiro do Amaral ; Vianna have argued that tecnobrega could also embody the possibilities of a new kind of music industry operating at the periphery. The stories of Amarantos and tecnobrega demonstrate the ephemeral nature and some of the lasting effects of the mediation process.

Tecnobrega was rising in national and international esteem. Soon, global urban music enthusiasts had their pick of tecnobrega acts to place next to other styles in the global bass scene. Brazil has regularly marketed itself to Anglophone publics through popular music.

From its first appearance in the international market, Brazilian music circulated and found new audiences through sheet music, newspaper and radio coverage, ballroom dance fads, musical theater and film, and, to a lesser degree, audio recordings. This book argues that the mediation of Brazilian music in an increasingly crowded transnational marketplace has had lasting consequences for the rich creative output celebrated by Brazil as part of its national brand.

Through an emphasis on music as part of the media industries, Bossa Mundo demonstrates the extent to which Brazilian music has played a prominent role in Anglophone culture in the postwar period. In so doing, it has demonstrated its market durability by fitting into contexts where audiences are not necessarily aware of its presence.

The story I tell sits at the juncture of music, mediation, and attention. In these breakthrough moments, I explore not just what the music in question may have represented, but what it did and how. By attending to how transnational mediation transforms the potency of music among publics with varying levels of emotional and monetary investment, I argue for a more expansive study of how music changes as it reaches the apex of popular appeal. New scholarship on attention and affect, led by Anahid Kassabian , has thrown into question some of the key assumptions behind work in popular music studies and sound studies.

In the case of international audiences of Brazilian music, they may be focused on the filmic image, on the content of advertisements the music underscores, or on the dance fad on TV that they are trying to emulate. He argued that all commercial music recordings and performances exist to drive sales for venues and media playback devices, thereby degrading the value of listening skills and increasing the degree of commodity fetishism between the audience and musician.

He further argued that people who listen to popular music enjoy the status that comes with spending money on the music rather than what they hear. For many scholars and critics, the central problem with the industrialization of music is the contradiction of mass profits and political meaning; publics enjoy massively popular music even as it is clear that profits influence mediation and distribution as well as compositional form, arrangement, recording production, and performance on stage.

By its very nature, popular music is shaped by commercial processes. This tension recalls the conflicts over music during the early years of the Brazilian military dictatorship. They troubled boundaries and were disruptive in how they did it in performances and broadcast media. From the perspective of Brazilian music and social movements, the issues of attention and mediation are central to the story. Only then is it possible to capture how music accomplishes representational and political work.

Publics are not just about personal identity or other demographic data. In his application of publics to recorded audio sermons in Islam, anthropologist Charles Hirschkind describes the ways that the sounds resonate across multiple sensory registers in addition to the discursive and semantic work they accomplish for religious adherents.

Audile publics can be fragile due to their relationship to the demands of the market as well as regulatory institutions and governance. Hirschkind shows that there is a transience about publics that are mediated through audio technology, both for listeners who are invested and for those who are not. These listening publics are even more fragile once we raise the question of direct engagement, consent, and awareness of music and sound.

Brian Larkin shows how residents in Jos, Nigeria, have developed techniques of inattention to religious loudspeakers as a tactic for urban living, thereby refusing that particular audile public in favor of another. One thing that the expansion of sound studies has shown clearly is that music and sound can operate on publics in insidious ways. They can urge people to make certain decisions via advertising, retail music, acoustic crowd control techniques, etc.

As Jonathan Crary notes in The Suspensions of Perception: Attention, Spectacle, and Modern Culture , attention first began to appear as a problem in the cultural discourse in the late nineteenth century alongside advances in psychology and an acceleration in the rhythm of modern, industrialized life. In popular music studies, attending to the unique sounds of a recording, video, or event is often what demonstrates the skills of a scholar trained in a music program.

In The Ecology of Attention, Citton argues that attention is relational at its core. His theory takes into account the asymmetries of who pays attention to whom and what, and how some forms of attention are given outweighed influence, especially in social media e. What someone likes or pays attention to is constituted by a vast network of others with varying levels of influence also giving that same thing attention.

The song rose to international prominence between and through a combination of its endorsement by soccer star Neymar and its being featured in YouTube algorithms, in social media memes, and, eventually, on terrestrial radio. Attention can also be manipulated by powerful interests, such as corporations, with the means to place ads or feature artists in top spots in social media.

Both in the case of the bossa nova dance craze in the early s and that of the lambada in and , the success of these fads depended on varying levels of attention, passive and active public exposure, and corporate interests that helped to guide the process.

In each of these cases, someone with influence is shaping the experience of how publics perceive new musical content. Keeping in mind this model of transindividual attention, I focus on the social actors who function as cultural intermediaries in the commercial sphere and direct the attention of publics. These intermediaries operate between Brazilian musicians, the music industry, and the Anglophone market, shaping Brazilian musical exposure for broad swaths of the market.

Cultural intermediation involves important labor processes. In other words, they are a type of service worker. At many junctures throughout this book, intermediaries championed the musicians and styles in question, sometimes out of admiration and at others as part of a ruthless search for profit. Both types of intermediation merit a closer look because they allowed Brazilian music to reach new publics, with varying levels of engagement. Since Bossa Mundo takes the role of media industries seriously, it offers a new way to think through how different publics pay attention to the music that they encounter and who or what is shaping that exposure.

By discussing listener attention from alternative perspectives, it offers a way to consider what this music does when publics are focused elsewhere. Thus, the book proposes a framework for conceiving of the power of popular music that expands outward from discussions of representation and expert listening to consider these musical publics in the plural. Such discussions of music express wider anxieties about the sway of the foreign market based in an extended history of influence from the United States and England.

While some have argued that other countries such as France have had a lasting impact on urban Brazilian culture, it is the Anglophone powers that have shaped the political economy of such goods as coffee, beef, soy, and oil, among others. Thus there have been many moments in the last century alone where interest from the United States and the United Kingdom has had consequences for the trajectory of Brazilian history.

General histories of Brazil by Thomas Skidmore and E. Bradford Burns cite numerous instances of US and British intervention in Brazil in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The distribution process of Brazilian music through transnational media industries emphasizes major hubs in the United States and the United Kingdom even though investing in Anglophone markets is far from the only route for reaching international audiences.

Media industries based in the United States do not dominate simply through sheer force but through penetration into local markets at the ground level. Music, however, has followed a different path in its patterns of industrial consolidation from the local to the multinational level. In places like Brazil, international investors built local record companies.

Those majors are all a part of multinational corporations that also produce and distribute television and blockbuster films. All three are publicly traded corporations with ownership and sway from investors all over the world. And yet, the international music market is often stubbornly geared toward trends that will play in the United States.

The Farce of Popular Music Abroad]. In Brazilian popular music, at least, that line of critique of US and European influence has been a constant source of biting humor. The fact that this expression is so common in Brazil indicates just how extensive British and US dominance has been there. Both were originally published at the height of US intervention in Latin America.

With this extensive history of intervention and critique in mind, Bossa Mundo tackles the breakthrough moments of Brazilian music in Anglophone markets as a means to uncover the continued process of domination by countries in the North Atlantic. Stating that Brazilian music has been influential does not provide a framework for discussing varying levels of listener engagement and has the potential to affirm the projects of empire in the United States and the United Kingdom. By emphasizing transnational mediation, I shift the focus to the mechanisms for the flows of content and attention.

Thus I advance the extended tradition in Brazil of critiquing the proportionally outsized influence that the United States and the United Kingdom in particular have on Brazilian music and media industries. Like many aspects of investment futures, a strong national brand means that a country can be highly ranked, even if there is little material evidence for such a prognosis: value in this sense is based on speculation and perception with all of the vagaries that they imply uncertain commons With this logic in mind, some countries and cities invest a significant share of public funds to tout their musical diversity in the hopes of bolstering the rest of the local economy.

Over the last few decades, brands have come to function less as combinations of slogans, logos, typefaces, and jingles and more as media unto themselves, uniquely suited to an age of rapidly circulating social media Lury Brands come into being through consumer use and experience. And design is crucial in capturing public attention. Luker ; Guilbault McCann ; Vianna ; Napolitano ; Netto That reputation has stuck.

Further, despite numerous styles of music circulating during annual Carnaval celebrations and competing for the attention of the national press, samba is what receives coverage in the international press, even when samba mixes with international styles. Other genres in Brazil have varying relationships with national identity, branding, and race.

Brazilian sociologist Michel Nicolau Netto notes that regional and international styles have a tentative relationship with the notion of a national brand. In this way, the brand for Brazil takes part in what John and Jean Comaroff describe as commercialization of ethnic and racial difference as a kind of identity economy It is one of the features that consistently grabs the attention of onlookers from abroad. The reality is that race in Brazil functions differently than in the United States and the United Kingdom.

Samba and discourses of diversity are inextricably linked with the history of slavery and sometimes forced racial mixture in that country. The historic similarities between the United States and Brazil and their ongoing relationships with the United Kingdom often draw comparisons when it comes to race.

When Ella Shohat and Robert Stam published their iconic Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media in , they posed the example of racial representation in Brazilian cinema as a point of comparison with Hollywood in the United States. After all, both countries take up vast expanses of their respective continents and enjoy a richness in natural resources. Part of the reason for those mutually distorting factors is the legacy of the transatlantic slave trade, which ran from the early sixteenth century through the end of the nineteenth century.

While the story of the slave trade begins and ends with racism and greed, it was also entangled in the project of empire. Both the United States and Brazil struggled to incorporate the formerly enslaved into their economic systems once slavery was abolished and turned to recent immigrant groups to fuel the ballooning labor demands in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, which included immigrants from central and southern Europe and Asia rather than those of African descent.

In addition to domestic work, the types of manual labor and the physical risks involved varied by climate. While manual labor in the United States was largely focused on tobacco and later cotton, places with tropical climates like Haiti, Cuba, and Brazil relied on slave labor to fuel the production of sugar.

Brazil has more variance of racial and ethnic identities. When it comes to music, the confluence of policy and ideology around race is what has captivated other nations, often to the detriment of other features. The vocabulary around race in Brazil is descriptive, yet some of the words are explicitly tied to the national brand and what first captures the attention of foreigners feeding into stereotypes.

What is more, race and class often overlap in daily discourse. That highly sexualized racial category exerts its power in the persistent objectification of Brazilian women entertainers and performers in transnational mediation.

Race is far more flexible in Brazil while still having clear economic and social consequences. The branding of Brazil as a bastion of racial difference has had a lasting effect on how publics perceive the country through music. That branding of racial mixture, combined with varying levels of attention, can reinforce some stereotypes above other qualities in the music.

I join other scholars working with sound, race, and affect who aim to show how the mediation of music can open up new opportunities for understanding race Stoever ; Weheliye ; Vazquez As the examples in this book unfold, I aim to underscore how processes of mediation have had enduring influence on the perpetuation of Brazilian stereotypes in music.

Organization of the Book Bossa Mundo covers over fifty years of Brazilian music in the United States and the United Kingdom, but it does not purport to be a comprehensive history. The first two chapters tell the story of how bossa nova became the most internationally famous style of music from Brazil in the s. Chapter 1 details the role of musicians and the music press in what became a veritable jazz and dance fad and the consequences of such widespread crossover success on the legacy of bossa nova.

At the time, jazz critics, musicians, and audiences were embroiled in debates about race and jazz, and bossa nova helped diffuse that tension. Chapter 2 shifts the focus from jazz and dance fads to bossa nova being marketed to adults. Through the close analysis of bossa nova in three films from the s, I show how the genre expressed redefinitions around sexuality and gender. As most fads do, bossa nova ran out of steam within a few years.

However, Brazilian musicians of the s were on the ground level of new musical developments in the United States. At the same time, the decade was marked with an expansion of popular music publics, expressed through the proliferation of popular music genres and new musical formats, including the extended dance remix.

All of this occurred against the backdrop of increased public attention to planetary consciousness and environmental activism. These factors had consequences for how music spread domestically and globally, and Brazilian music began to circulate in contexts where publics would be overstimulated. The continued popularity of Brazilian music in the United States and the United Kingdom stands as a testament to the creativity with which musicians and music industry workers navigate structures of cultural dominance within transnational media industries.

Even as the examples in this book may tempt Brazilian music enthusiasts to throw up their hands at the continued dominance of the Global North in these mediating processes, it is my hope that Bossa Mundo demonstrates the rich possibilities of these types of musical exchanges alongside its critique of their operation. By focusing on the transnational mediation of Brazilian music, I aim to demonstrate the potency of the music for publics that do not prioritize 21 For theories of ubiquity, see Anahid Kassabian and Leslie Meier I ask how certain intermediaries leveraged significant power to shape this story, and why this music broke through to new heights of popularity as often as it did.

Further, I suggest that studying musical attention in the plural can offer a more nuanced understanding of how music becomes embedded in daily life. Through the example of Brazilian music, Bossa Mundo offers a new model for studying musical mediation that demonstrates how music accomplishes important cultural work at its most popular. At the time, Jones admitted that his music was taking part in a jazz recording fad.

It was a fashionable performance in every sense. Above all, it was fun. From that moment to its peak, bossa nova spread across a variety of venues and practices. Bossa nova attained crossover success through intermediaries such as enterprising musicians, dance studio managers, critics and reporters in the music press, radio and television programmers, and cultural icons of the period.

One need only pay attention for a brief period to participate in a fad in fashion, music, dance, or food. Fads are also easy to access and emerge from the transindividual attention of influential critics, reporters, and popular culture consumers. Fads are relational. Put another way: white jazz critics were confronting issues of civil rights. This chapter argues that it was easy for intermediaries such as jazz critics to dismiss bossa nova due to its overtly commercial path of dissemination and subsequent transformation into a fad.

Bossa nova demonstrated one of the last moments jazz crossed over into mainstream popularity. Unlike other dance fads of the postwar period, the bossa nova had no link to African American roots or youth revolt. Bossa nova was far from the first instance of a Latin American popular music style that circulated as a dance fad: by the s, the US public was already voraciously consuming Latin American dance styles. While bossa nova persisted long after its height of popularity, it lost some luster due to its links with commerce, whiteness, adults, and the feminine popular.

There it was a social movement and its effects were felt in Brazilian music for decades. By contrast, guitar parts in typical samba songs emphasize running bass lines, and plucked or strummed rhythms in the right hand to emphasize the rolling eighth notes of a samba groove. The prevalence of rubato in his vocal lines provided further metrical dissonance. It was the style of samba that circulated on radio programs and recordings. For the cohort that gathered around Jobim, Gilberto, and de Moraes, that intimacy connected the rhythms of samba to jazz and to French composers such as Ravel and Debussy.

To a generation of bossa nova musicians, Brazilian popular song was as important as new literary developments e. It quickly became shorthand that many commentators and advertisers used to describe everything young, new, and exciting. In Brazil, the bossa nova fad was associated with youth culture, but it was far removed from dancing and, in many respects, it resembled the aesthetic and cultural affinities that marked the early s folk music revival in the United States Reily Many Brazilian musical critics and historians categorize bossa nova as a cultural movement cf.

Naves Even though it only dominated the music scene for five years before it was eclipsed by the rise of a military dictatorship and the musical responses 7 French publishers were the first to show interest and take advantage of Brazilian songwriters. Bossa Nova and Latin Jazz of the Early s In , the US recording industry anticipated the potential for the bossa nova to be a major trend.

For international audiences, Orfeu Negro was the first introduction to the sounds of bossa nova. It took two more years and an international trip by a jazz musician to find the right formula for bossa nova to break into the US mainstream. Jazz Samba just happened to hit the mark.

The effectiveness of Byrd and Getz as intermediaries was not due to the fact that they were the first to recognize the potential of the music to reach a US audience, but rather their adaptation of it into a cool jazz aesthetic about which I elaborate below to make it legible to jazz audiences. Versions of bossa nova soon appeared in other countries, including the United Kingdom, France, 10 Felix Grant was an influential jazz DJ based in Washington, DC, from until his death in In , the Brazilian government awarded him the Order of the Southern Cross in recognition of his efforts in promoting Brazilian musicians in the United States.

The approach that the musicians, alongside producer Creed Taylor, took to recording bossa nova was a clear departure from how the music was performed and produced in Brazil. The rhythm also changed. Some of the main innovations of bossa nova musicians were in how they distilled the interlocking polyrhythms of samba percussion and placed them in the guitar as it played complex harmonies.

In the first few seconds, the guitar plays the opening chords over a rich orchestral arrangement, including flutes, violins, and drums. The guitar features a rhythmic figure that slowly builds in textural depth as the flutes join.

It was just enough of a difference to inspire imitators and spearhead a major change in how Brazilian popular song was conceived and produced. Instead, the drums serve the role of outlining the samba rhythms. The one quality that does not change between these two recordings of the same song is the overall sheen of production.

In the rush to capitalize on the genre through recordings and a new dance, critics and musicians struggled to identify key musical characteristics. See Mendes Since Vince Guaraldi treated the songs from Black Orpheus like jazz standards, most of which were originally hits from Broadway musicals, his reworking of those tunes had little to do with either samba or bossa nova. The trio plays with this contrast by switching back and forth toward the end of the track.

For Guaraldi and others, the tunes were easier to execute than the microrhythms of samba. It would take Guaraldi a few years to alter his cool jazz adaptation of bossa nova to foreground Brazilian rhythms. Cool was a part of being hip. Due to its history, cool jazz held the unenviable status of being both popular with crossover audiences in the early s and the subject of rebuke by civil rights activists. Birth of the Cool expressed the creative possibilities of cool aesthetics as an alternative to the frenetic 15 Many US jazz musicians struggle to make the switch between Latin and swing rhythmic paradigms.

See DeVeaux It was an exclusionary stance that was crucial to bebop as a musical expression of racial resistance DeVeaux The expressive restraint so important to cool jazz was the antithesis of the emerging discourse of freedom that took over in the s once jazz musicians began to take part in the civil rights movement Monson ; Saul In the early s, some activists viewed the cool jazz approaches of those musicians living on the West Coast with suspicion.

Yet those same crossover approaches appealed to jazz musicians who were less invested in the polarizing racial discourses of the period, including some who played styles such as hard bop and soul jazz. Cool and its stylistically adjacent brethren in pop and vocal jazz were simply too commercial for critics seeking music that was politically meaningful to them. Most reviewers were skeptical of Latin albums if other jazz qualities, such as swing and rhythmic drive, were not on full display while celebrating experimentation with Latin rhythms.

Complaints were often about orchestration and arrangement as much as they were about Latin music being dated. Such stuff sounds dated today, incidentally, for much of the fascination that Latin drum music held for jazzmen in the past has worn off. Candido Latin Fire 55 Here, the reviewer posits swing as one of the few positive qualities of the album, while he deems the standard Latin pop approaches as unacceptable.

The assumption made in reviews like these is that serious jazz lovers would not be interested in lighter Latin jazz styles. Because Latin music in this period was acceptable only if it featured fast polyrhythms and had a strong sense of groove, bossa nova had some difficulty being taken seriously. The understated approach to rhythmic complexity was wholly unfamiliar. Jazz critics filtered the relative first flush of success of bossa nova recordings through their preferences and values.

Their role as intermediaries had a profound effect on the extended viability of bossa nova beyond the initial outburst of recordings. A Fad Is Born A major factor in the rapid development of the bossa nova as a social dance arose from the financial success of the twist Goldschmitt a. As a social dance, the twist was one of the biggest sensations of the early s, including two separate runs on the Billboard Hot singles chart the second of which finished in early The single peaked at number 4 on the Adult Contemporary charts in and crossed over to the Billboard Hot , where it peaked at number 14 later that year.

The album itself would reach the top of the pop charts the following year. This would be a natural development in the light of the fact that practically all of the new dances have burst upon the teenage population, and quickly been picked up by the dancing teens, as a result of single record hits that have featured a dance.

The version of the bossa nova that Arthur Murray Studios advertised featured couples in a parallel dance with crossover foot movements. The man leads and the woman follows. Both dances coincided with a fashion trend of tight skirts and tight hair for women while also restoring the primacy of couples dancing in the years just before the sexual revolution. It caught on with the white upper and middle classes and subsequently spread beyond youth culture to the broader public.

Through the coordination of record companies and dance studios, bossa nova sat at the crossroads between accessible teen dance fad and elite Latin ballroom style. However, it was because the bossa nova was more complex than the easy abandon of the twist that it fell short of industry expectations. By the summer of , news media coverage of bossa nova music and dance explicitly linked the style to class differences rather than age. Bossa nova appeared in advertisements for East Coast summer resorts as part of dance class packages Tamiment ; Brickman Through visual representation and snappy copy, these ads indicated that knowing the bossa nova would make a person sophisticated as knowing Bach and trendy as fitting in at a Parisian nightclub.

Thus the style leapt from youthful exuberance to connections to luxury and prestige. That link was crucial to how the style was used to sell products as diverse as cashmere sweaters, throw rugs, ice cream, and new haircuts. In the ad copy for each of these items, bossa nova was the crucial link to convey sophistication and quality.

That industry impulse to use bossa nova to sell products and appeal to a broad swath of the public meant that critics and audiences committed to music without such appeals to commercial success would be uncomfortable. The names of those who brought it before the public also are of little import. Throughout much of the rest of and , jazz critics responded to the rush of bossa nova albums with an awareness that it was a profitable fad. Similarly, when describing a Paul Winter album, John S.

The misgivings about bossa nova spread to jazz fans and readers of Down Beat. Then where will we be? There was nothing new about the scandals that plagued the music industry. Down Beat, in particular, reacted strongly to the scandal with coverage lasting for three consecutive issues the following year. That temporal proximity of visible payola to dance fads and the explosion of the teen market did not elude the careful eye of jazz record industry watchers.

This was after the advent of bebop had disrupted the link between jazz and popular music cf. DeVeaux For some, the only aspect of the style that was of any worth was its newness. Although that concert featured bossa nova musicians such as Jobim, Gilberto, and Bola Sete, the focus of reviews was on how their sense of rhythm failed to conform to North American jazz rhythms. Despite his complaints about the quality of the performance, Bill Coss did, however, reserve praise for Jobim and Gilberto as performers.

I take some comfort in the words of musicians whom I respect that the concert was not representative of the best of bossa nova. Due to these flaps, it took additional work for Brazilian musicians to gain a sympathetic audience among discerning jazz publics. Jobim also claimed that his songs suffered as a result of inaccurate transcriptions of his harmonies Lees We do not dance to it in Brazil.

It is a music to listen to, like good jazz. But now they have a bossa nova dance in the United States, and I see they have here bossa nova shoes. He acknowledged the mania surrounding bossa nova in both countries that extended well beyond the intent of musicians that initially created it. I knew what they would do. I knew what the concert Carnegie Hall would be like. In addition to the dancers, Ebony featured a photo of Brazilian guitarist Bola Sete as the only visual example of a Brazilian bossa nova musician.

In bossa nova circles both in Brazil and elsewhere, Bola Sete was better known as a sideman than as an innovator. It is telling that Ebony chose to highlight him above other musicians, such as Jobim, who were playing shows around the United States in the early s. US reviews often touted Bola Sete as more authentic than other bossa nova artists playing in the States at the time cf. Wilson a: The Black middle class demographic was not neutral. Most notable was the growing awareness of the role of the music industries and youth culture in the civil rights struggle, and of the seedier elements of an expanding music industry such as payola.

The postwar boom in economic growth and musical distribution presented a tangible problem for a musical genre like jazz. Jazz history about this era is polarized with respect to bossa nova: depending on the commentator, its massive popular success and crossover politics either led to the downfall and eventual redemption of jazz, or was the pinnacle of fusion tendencies in the s.

Also, bossa nova rapidly attained the commercialism jazz critics had warned about with soul jazz. Welburn echoed the widely held belief that tied jazz virtuosity, innovation, and autonomy to the actions of men. It was in keeping with the overarching ideology of Black Nationalism and the arts during the period.

The subtext here is that the commercial success of bossa nova violated the masculine values of serious jazz. Cultural theorist Andreas Huyssen describes how mass culture has been associated with the feminine since the nineteenth century. Much of the divisiveness around bossa nova had to do with its passage from critical acclaim to an exhausted commodity. Aftermath The commercial success of bossa nova in American popular culture and its resonance in the United Kingdom did not allow it to be absorbed into the jazz tradition without complications.

Recent popular music and jazz studies have noted that criticism tends to privilege music that is perceived as independent of the economic pressures of surviving in the entertainment industry, in order to more authentically frame it as a revolutionary force of cultural vanguardism. These arguments are especially prescient when discussing the fallout in the jazz community in the decades following the advent of bebop.

This equation is especially unfortunate due to the race of those whose record was the first major breakthrough for bossa nova: Getz and Byrd. They never masked their whiteness. The racial, economic, and geographic position of those who started the bossa nova movement in Brazil was unabashedly upper class and white, an especially loaded designation for a country like Brazil, where economic disparities often trump racial differences cf.

Hanchard Yet even as the music found publics in the United States and United Kingdom, it never shed its ties to the prevailing sense of Brazil as Other. Its mixture of foreignness and cosmopolitanism was part of its appeal. Free Jazz was released a mere three months before Jazz Samba. It was not just free jazz: many in the jazz community were also confronting musical vanguardism at the same time that they were struggling with racial tension and the role of the white jazz critic.

In many instances, they sought to judge musicians playing bossa nova tunes by technical ability to legitimize their success. Despite claims that the music was a fad, bossa nova songs continued as staples of the jazz repertoire. Jobim, Gilberto, and others went on to become internationally successful. Their popularity was so exceptional that jazz legends often voiced their support for Jobim, Gilberto, and de Moraes, echoing their canonization within Brazil.

The mass production of music during the period lent this style an air of suspicion, especially since there was little room for niche tastes. This meant that the style was inevitably marked as too pedestrian. Throughout the montage, there is no visible musical accompaniment to his singing save two brief clips where Pierre strums a few chords on a guitar.

Cultural intermediaries such as filmmakers imbued the style with the ability to soundtrack subject matter distant from just a few years prior. The foreign and exotic quality of bossa nova allowed it to reference not just Brazil, but also a range of topics and narrative scenarios.

Similarly, the musical qualities of what these publics heard as bossa nova featured loose references to the Brazilian style; bossa nova had become a diffuse, Latin musical referent. And since the bossa nova soundtrack was auxiliary to the image and narrative, viewer attention was more dispersed, resulting in a decreased awareness of the music.

The prominence of the music in the montage sequence from Un Homme et Une Femme demonstrates just how the meaning of bossa nova began to change through filmic mediation. For Stilwell, there is both magic and danger in that gap as it demonstrates the instability of the filmic world. Here, the gap expresses the precarious hold on memories of deceased loved ones.

This chapter explores how bossa nova in other audiovisual media in this period often expressed an underlying danger tied to the exotic, although not always through such clear gaps in the soundtrack. These moments often occurred when characters dealt with sexual or exotic subject matter.

That contextual setting altered the meaning of Brazilian music among Anglophone publics during this period. Un Homme et Une Femme illustrates how bossa nova was changing through the process of mediation. The film featured bossa nova through the efforts of its charismatic supporting actor, Pierre Barouh, who was an important intermediary for Brazilian music in France. Barouh sang a slight alteration of the bossa nova rhythm to make it more palatable, singing with a mixture of a syncopated samba rhythm and straight eighth notes.

Since the film was popular in the arthouse cinema circuit in the United States and the United Kingdom, the simplified samba rhythms allowed that version of the 2 Barouh later displayed his admiration of Brazilian music in the documentary Saravah , dir. That shift to adult sensibilities also marked the bossa nova as separate from youth tastes just as the baby boom generation began to embrace the countercultural changes affiliated with the political Left.

In the years following the initial saturation of bossa nova in US and British media, the style began to express differences in taste that cut across age, class, and their relationship to cultural capital. Bossa nova lost prestige and became a musical symbol of sex and exoticism. During this period, the recurring public debate around the mass reproducibility of art continued apace. Greenberg ; Adorno ; Benjamin The culture industries fed public attention, and there were just enough venues like arthouse cinemas and record stores to satisfy publics across different class strata.

But the rise of the counterculture made parsing the aesthetic value of bossa nova difficult beyond generational divisions. Thus, the threat to normative masculinity was reflected in filmic representations of men as fragile and vulnerable to the dangers of femininity and homosexuality. As Krin Gabbard has shown, traces of that crisis appear across popular media and continued for decades in film.

Newly appropriated musical styles like bossa nova appearing in film at the same time would have a lasting effect on the musical legacy of Brazil abroad. Many histories of Brazilian popular music trace the end of the bossa nova movement to that instant. See Dunn , Harvey , Leu , and Sovik Released a full year after the bossa nova craze began to lose steam in the United States, the album catapulted bossa nova to the peak of its national and international popularity before fading.

No other bossa nova song would implant itself in Anglophone popular song repertoire to such a large extent. In fact, the Gilbertos separated in and divorced the next year. Astrud, on the other hand, stayed in the United States. In September , Gilberto released her second solo album, The Shadow of Your Smile, for Verve, in an attempt to move beyond the bossa nova fare that had catapulted her to stardom. Apart from the wind there are no clues as to her location at the time of the photo shoot.

That lack of place set the album apart; the cover images for her solo debut and her third and fourth albums all featured her looking at the camera through what appears to be tropical foliage. The design worked with fantasies about her as an object of the male gaze with no clear reference to Brazil, or even a tropical locale.

Upon its release, Billboard noted its strong sales potential and anticipated that the album would do well, citing the appealing combination of US and Brazilian standard fare Spotlight Pick The Gentle Rain , dir. Of the songs from the soundtrack, the theme song was the one that Gilberto performed most often in concert. The affair resulted in a divorce and child custody battle between Day and her first husband, Joseph Pantano.

The film sets up the onscreen romance between their characters, Judy Reynolds Day and Bill Patterson George , as a hotbed of sexual and psychological dysfunction. Judy first travels to Rio de Janeiro after her marriage fails due to her sexual frigidity. There she meets Bill at a party for American expats living in the city.

He is a mute whose psychological scars are only explained later in the film. The affair has contrasting effects on the romantic leads. The bossa nova, sexuality, and tourism were all rolled into one exciting package aimed clearly at young women, in keeping with stereotypes about the potential for sexual liberation tied to Brazil. The crisis that began with men returning to domesticity at the end of World War II was exacerbated by the rising visibility of marginalized groups, such as women, African Americans, and gays and lesbians.

In film, television, and literature, this anxiety appeared as leading men and protagonists struggled to cope with losing power. Many scholars who study such filmic representations of white masculinity focus on how themes of alienation, loss of economic capital, and sexual deviance came to the fore after the s.

In both instances, the contrast highlights the delicacy of bossa nova as performed by guitar and the strength of her character. One could argue that the swelling orchestra expresses her sexual maturation. Thus, in keeping with conventions for female protagonists, her musical theme doubles as the romantic theme for the film. See Alison McCracken for a discussion of anxieties around masculinity and recording technology. Throughout the entirety of the recording, the pulse in the guitar stays consistent, never varying from a stiff, dogmatic approach to bossa nova rhythms beneath a lush orchestra.

Like many of her other recordings, Gilberto does not employ vibrato and often sings slightly flat. The orchestra fills out the sound with falling gestures and playful effects from the strings and flutes. The melody enters on the French horn and cellos as the sequence shifts to inside the plane and focuses on Judy looking out the window before she sits back in her seat and sighs.

The New York Journal American gossip columnist Igor Cassini coined the phrase in the s in reference to the organization of a social scene dependent upon jet travel, a recent and relatively exclusive innovation. That escaping to Rio de Janeiro to cavort with other expatriates was even an option for her links her to the jet setters who flaunted their lifestyle from expensive hotels.

Due to the expense of air travel during the period, jets had an air of glamour. The fact that bossa nova was popular with a group of social elites traveling around the world recreationally gave the music additional sophistication and exoticism by association. For many onlookers, jet travel was merely an extravagant fantasy, just achievable enough to propel them to desire related trends. It features a soundtrack by Quincy Jones, with a recurring theme sung by Astrud Gilberto.

Dieter and Dobbs fight at a dock, where Dobbs ultimately kills him. As the film closes at the Switzerland airport, Dobbs meets Ann at the airport and husband and wife are reunited without further complication. When Dobbs and Dieter see each other throughout the film, the tension is palpable.

Dobbs touches Dieter multiple times in their first onscreen interaction. When Dobbs recognizes Dieter at Edward II, he runs to the restroom and vomits in a visceral display of betrayal and abjection. The detail of the play is also an important parallel to the plot.

Throughout The Deadly Affair, bossa nova appears most often during revelations of the betrayed intimacy and sexual panic at the center of the story. Both symbolize the growing tension between Dobbs, Ann, and Dieter. The lush string orchestra and light, simplified bossa rhythm underscore a series of filtered, intimate images of Dobbs and Ann in their bedroom see Figures 2.

He returns home in frustration just after learning that Fennan is dead, and hearing from his supervisor that he must visit the widow. At first, it is unclear if the music is diegetic until he closes the bedroom door to the bathroom, effectively muffling the sound of the recording. By the time he opens the door to see his wife lingering on the bed, the volume has increased to the point where it competes with the dialogue in the mix. The music slips into the foreground, at times eclipsing the dialogue.

He then leans over to his wife on the bed and kisses her passionately and then pushes her away as he leaves to return to work. When Dobbs first sees Dieter, there is no background music as the two men embrace. He is overjoyed. Critics often use the concept to critique rather than praise mirroring scoring and editing practices as overly cartoonish. As Dobbs moves from anger to vulnerability, the bossa nova guitar enters followed shortly by flutes playing the main theme in their lowest range.

In this scene, bossa nova functions as score. Dobbs is incapable of maintaining a healthy marriage even as he tries to convince himself otherwise. Bossa nova nearly disappears from the score until just after Dobbs discovers beyond a doubt that Dieter is a communist spy. Soon, he is interrupted by a phone call relaying that Dieter is at the dock.

However, as the film is about both a marriage and Cold War espionage, the music overlaps at times to emphasize how sex and geopolitics intersect through one man, Charles Dobbs. Bossa nova as sung by Astrud Gilberto is intimately seductive. It is also dangerous. The Deadly Affair shows that the transnational meanings of bossa nova were shifting to a heightened level of the exotic, which made it more marketable to Anglophone publics.

There are no direct references to Brazil, 17 In the version of the song released on the original motion picture soundtrack, she sings in English. The narrative placement of the song directed public attention to the record while the song directed attention to film, boosting sales for both media Smith Wild Style Theme A2.

MC Battle A3. Basketball Throwdown A4. Military Cut Scratch Mix A6. Stoop Rap B2. Wild Style Subway Rap B4. Gangbusters Scratch Mix B6. Yakhal Inkomo 2. Doodlin' 4. Bessie's Blues. Malouma — Nebine 4. Yasuaki Shimizu - Karachi 5. Mariah - Shinzo No Tobira 6.

Admin - Step Into Light 9. Phillip Malela — Tiba Kamo Tyrone Evans - Rise Up Discomix Eamon - Ready For War Sven Wunder — Mosaic Hiroshi Suzuki — Romance Malouma — Yarab. The Children Of Scorpio 2. The Road Through The Hills 3. Path Through The Forest 4. Searching For June Interlude 5. June 6. Scorpio's Waltz 7. The Invitation interlude 8.

The Ritual '70 9. Scorpio's Garden The Turning Plan Your Escape The Deserted Compound interlude Buried In The Woods Closing Theme. Fama Allah 2. Djama 3. Beni Inikanko 4. Nissodia 5. Ben 6. Chene Noir - Le Train 3. Typesun - The P. Extended Edit 6. King Errisson - Space Queen 7. Yusef Lateef - Robot Man 8. Francisco — Wache Nar'Chiveol - Apocalypse Now Ho On - Southern Freeez Soylent Green - After All.

Belladonna 2. Summer Rain 3. Remadione 4. Mayday 5. Suspension 6. Assimilation Ft. Dylema 2. Jermain Jackman 3. Brother Andrew — The Investigator Ft. Brother Andrew Muhammad 4. Break The Chains 5. Lee Jasper 6. Yolanda Lear 7. Say Black Ft. Dylema 9. The Babylon Encounter Ft. Witness The Whiteness Ft. Adam Elliot Cooper Lifeline Ft. Zara McFarlane. Crayfish Caper Nuyorican Broken Mix 2. Side 1 1. Yalvarma Don't Beg 2. Agitate 3. Yeter Enough 4. Melodi Melody part 1 5. Melodi Melody part 2 Side 2 1.

Elegy For Love 2. Affet Beni Forgive Me 3. Inertia 4. Ahenk Harmony 5. Please, Don't Take This Badly Faith In Time 2. Scene In Roma 3. Who Knows When 4. Hidden In The Pampas 5. Fear Me Now 6. How It Shimmers 7. El Ejido 8. Tears Of A Crown 2. Return 3. Bodies 5. Poetic Justice 6. Thought About U 7. Kisses 8. In Your Sex 9. Remember Break Black Boy. Estrelar 2. Fogo Do Sol 3. Samba De Verao 4. Para Os Filhos Abraao 5. Naturalmente 6. Tapa No Real 7.

Tapetes, Guardanapos, Cetins 8. Dia D 9. Mais Que Amor Viola Enluarada. Trem Da Central 2. Candura 3. Pela Cidade 4. Onda Negra 5. Gama O 6. Vale Tudo 7. Guarde Minha Voz 8. S As Estrelas. Belladonna A2. Summer Rain B1. Remadione B2. Mayday B3. Suspension B4. Modiehi Khomo Tsaka Deile Kae? It's High Life A2. Walking Don The Street A3. Cut Your Coat B2. Adwoa B3. Simigwa B4. So Solidao Se Indice. William Doyle Near Future Residence. William Doyle The Dream Derealised.

No Age People Helping People. Pink Floyd Animals - Remix. Eerie Wanda Internal Radio. Sarah Davachi Two Sisters. Sweet Billy Pilgrim Somapolis. Alessandro Adriani Rapid Eye. Kennebec Without Star Or Compass. Two The Hardway Who Said? Pulselovers Circles Within Circles. Seaweed Actions And Indications Reissue. Lincoln Repair And Reward. Ikebe Shakedown Ikebe Shakedown.

The perfect marriage of breezy South American rhythms, sunkissed melodies and smooth vocals, the album is a testament to the songwriting talents of the duo and the production and arrangement expertise of Arthur Verocai and Luis Bonfa. Remastered for and presented in replica artwork, this Brazilian fusion gem is finally available without securing a second mortgage.

Release date: Expected 2 Sep ' This previously unreleased album by the Horace Tapscott Quintet was unearthed from master tapes in the Flying Dutchman archives. Recorded in it was intended to be a follow-up album to the classic 'The Giant Is Awakened' which was released that year.

The iconic pianist and composer Horace Tapscott was one of the most unique and important figures in LA's jazz world. This lost recording was produced by one of the pivotal figures in jazz, Bob Thiele, a leading behind-the- scenes star who worked with many of the greats in jazz, such as Quincy Jones, Duke Ellington, John Coltrane, Della Reese, Shirley Scott, Gil Scott-Heron, the list goes on.

His name can be seen gracing, arguably the best, Impulse! Kicking things off we have 'World Peace', which starts with an almost baroque- esque melody, leading to an eruption in sound, it then ends in the same manner it began. The beautiful 'Your Child' is the jewel in the crown, skirting modal, deep jazz and introducing elements of free jazz.

World Peace 2. Your Child 3. For Fats. Ryo Kawasaki Juice Mr Bongo. Release date: Expected 5 Aug ' Born in Japan in , Ryo had a long and stellar career recording and releasing music up until his passing on 13 April , in Tallinn, Estonia. A forward-thinking and ever-evolving musician, Ryo collaborated with the Roland Corporation and Korg on the 'guitar synthesizer' and later wrote music software for computers. Later in life he relocated to Estonia and worked there, as well as Finland, Sweden, and the Baltic states.

A solid album throughout that incorporates a heavy dose of tripped-out synths alongside the emerging disco sound of the time. Tracks such as the opener 'Raisins', with its drum beat intro and bubbling bass-line, rivals The Headhunters at their finest. A superb album from an underground legend.

A2 poster. Gatefold tip-on sleeve. Release date: Expected 22 Jul ' Previously he had worked on many records in various capacities, with artists including Jorge Ben, Ivan Lins and Celia, but this album gave him the chance to do his thing in its most pure form. Bossa nova, samba, jazz, MPB, psychedelics and funk sit side by side effortlessly. The album transcends the genre of Brazilian music, and infact all genres.

Our definitive re-issue is an exact replica of the gatefold original LP and the source master is taken from the Continental tapes, re-mastered in under Arthur's supervision. Release date: Expected 15 Jul ' Thirty years after its original release, Main Source's debut album Breaking Atoms has lost none of its capacity to surprise or delight It remains a prime example of a classically styled hip-hop LP - two DJs, one MC, 11 tracks, no flab or filler.

It wasn't a slow burner - it was adored on release and hasn't left the top ten of any serious rap fan ever since. What makes it so special? Perhaps it's in the group's ear for a hook and sample, with Large Professor mounting a whole, celebrated career off the back of this gem.

Perhaps it's in the way he manages to balance bragging with more political, thematic tracks such as 'Just a Friendly Game of Baseball' and 'Peace is not the Word to Play' without ever coming across as preachy. Few albums of this length are able to spawn four singles - all of them must-haves - while still having material galore on the album that could have been pressed as a 12".

Sample-wise, it's all about the skillfully woven mixture of the obvious and the obscure, with a tapestry of samples approach that's just not legally possible anymore. It's an approach that pays constant dividends and rewards repeated listens. Presented in its original format, this is the essence of Breaking Atoms, one of the best albums in the long history of this genre.

It comes as no surprise to discover we are massive fans of Marcos Valle here at Piccadilly Records but this forgotten and obscure gem from the Brazilian maestro has proven to remain elusive to us until very recently 'Girassol' is a lost Brazilian-boogie stunner from It was originally released as an ultra-rare promo only 7".

It was a promotional item to be distributed to customers of a supermarket chain as a gift. Due to not having any conventional distribution channels this resulted in the 7" becoming a slippery customer to find. The vibe is reminiscent of the much loved 'Estrelar' era of Marcos Valle's glorious recording career, and certainly one for fans of the Lincoln Olivetti, Robson Jorge production sound. Ultra-rare Brazilian boogie from Marcos Valle.

Reminiscent of 'Estrelar' era Valle. For fans of Lincoln Olivetti productions. Bongo have unearthed a supremely rare offering from a free supermarket promo! The stuff of Balearic legend until now and thankfully matching its unquestionable rarity with high musicality.

Wild Style remains the most seminal soundtrack in hip-hop history, a snapshot of the scene as it evolved from the streets to the recording studio. But it's not just a vital document, it's also a damn good listen. The line-up is a who's who of those who stood out from hip- hop's nascent block party days.

The music captures the free-form, roaming nature of the film — it's rough at the edges, it's occasionally amateurish, but it's completely, utterly glorious. The original Animal tracklisting, of which this is a reissue, is full of recurring sounds and motifs, all of them co-produced by Chris Stein and Fab Five Freddy, stepping away from breakbeats to produce a sound that reminds you of them, while being totally unique. The epic drums are courtesy of Lenny 'Ferrari' Ferraro, a Vietnam vet and punk drummer whose career spanned stints backing Aretha Franklin and Lou Reed.

Over time, those sounds — the Charlie Chase and Grand Wizard Theodore scratches, the indelible lyrics - have become hip- hop touchstones, endlessly sampled and referenced, the bedrock of so much music to follow. That's because the soundtrack perfectly encapsulated the essence of the film, the scene and hiphop's emergence from The Bronx to the attention of the wider world.

Presented in this reissue with the original artwork, it remains the blueprint. Housed in a beautiful OBI The Mankunku Quartet's album 'Yakhal' Inkomo' clocks in at just over 30 minutes of jazz perfection. This compact, and to-the-point, album would sit comfortably in amongst some of the best works in the catalogues of any of the quintessential jazz labels such as Blue Note, Prestige and Impulse.

On the sleeve notes, Ray Nkwe the producer and the President of the Jazz Appreciation Society of South Africa writes 'This is the LP that every jazz fan has been waiting for' and Ray was not wrong, it's a stone-cold timeless jazz classic. Half-speed mastering at Abbey Road Studios.

Indies exclusive pink Curating these compilations, where Mr Bongo share their latest musical discoveries and old favourites from the global stage, is always a labour of love. This selection is less dancefloor driven than their previous volumes, as fewer opportunities for live events drove them to explore other paths and styles in the musical spectrum. But, whether you're DJing for a kitchen or a club, there is still a generous serving of spicy dancefloor magic.

They pulled songs from the 70s up to the present day and feature a stellar cast of artists. There's an exclusive track from Sven Wunder which was recorded solely for this compilation. There's also a track from Admin which was released as a private press 7" at the start of and one they felt was far too good to only be available for the lucky few.

You'll also discover one of their most treasured Gyedu Blay Ambolley productions, a full-force African disco colossus! Taking inspiration from classic 60s and 70s soundtrack and cinematic composers such as Axelrod, Morricone, Gainsbourg, Jean- Claude Vannier and Piero Umiliani, the album was very well received upon its release and struck a chord with the scene's connoisseurs.

The next logical step was to make their music available on 45 too. The release features an album track 'Fear Me Now' on the A-side and is paired on the B-side with two new tracks that channel the sound of library music giants such as Hawkshaw and Bennett. Three lush, warm and timeless productions. Inspired by classic 60s and 70s soundtrack composers such as Axelrod and Morricone, and library music giants including Hawkshaw and Bennett.

A cinematic musical journey that plays out like a long-lost soundtrack think cult B-movies of the 60s and 70s ; 'The Children of Scorpio' was formed from Paul's love of a myriad of genres; from European library music, acid folk, psych-funk, vintage soundtracks and the contemporary breaks scene. The influence of these vintage productions of the 60s and 70s is evident; however, it could be argued that there's also echoes of the funkier psychedelic moments of bands such as The Stones Roses and The Charlatans, alongside contemporaries such as The Heliocentrics and Little Barrie, thus giving the album a broader crossover potential beyond the world of crate digging and vintage soundtracks.

We are delighted to be releasing this slowly- brewed timeless classic that manages to achieve that rare feat of keeping one foot firmly in the past whilst still sounding totally contemporary. Indies exclusive blue The album presents a unique blend of pop, jazz, funk and soul, containing more than a hint of Joni Mitchell, Led Zeppelin and the like. Backed by her husband Lukas Lindholm on bass Doris was able to lay down some seriously funky bass lines on tracks like 'Don't' and 'Beatmaker'.

On 'You Never Come Closer', an experimental track that was way ahead of its time, Janne Carlsson unleashes a fearsome sound on drums helped by Bernot Egerladh on organ. This has led to Doris' work becoming increasingly popular amongst underground hip-hop fans. Indies exclusive red Belgium, not the first place you'd think of when it comes to Latin or Afro-funk.

Yet one of the greatest records to blend both styles came from the small northern European country, masterminded by Nico Gomez and his Afro Percussion Inc. Across its 11 tracks Ritual delivers the kind of production, arrangement and musicianship that rightfully belong in a dictionary next to the definition of professional.

Gomez' band was tight and they knew it, showing it off on their covers of Perez Prado's 'Caballo Negro' and 'Lupita' by injecting the originals with a deep funk that blends both Afro and Latin influences. The title cut remains one of the album's highlights, a devastating dancefloor groove with horns to match that has aged beautifully and was heavily sampled by Liquid People for 'The Dragon'.

The tapes had been taken by some Malian students to East Berlin as part of a student exchange program. It was then manufactured and released on the East German state owned label Eterna with only a few boxes of records being shipped back to Bamako.

A true masterpiece, this legendary LP offers some devastating songs such as 'Djama' society , 'Nissodia' joy of optimism , and 'Fama Allah' an ode to god. Hypnotic organ riffs and breakbeats convey an unknown funk quality in Malian music, it now stands as a loving tribute to an unsung Malian golden age. Sadly, like many of the other now desired and prized vinyl rarities, at the time of release, it almost immediately disappeared without a trace due to a lack of promotion, and distribution.

So, it feels fitting to share this gem of a record again, and hopefully it with reach the wider audience it deserved over 45 years ago. A funky masterpiece packed with organ-driven riffs and incredible drum breakbeats. A sought-after rarity from the Malian golden age. Various Artists Luke Una Presents With some of the best DJs and selectors there is a certain mysterious sound or underlying feeling which unites the music they play, regardless of genre, year or tempo.

Luke Una is a master of telling a story through music and this compilation is a perfect example of his musical alchemy in action. Featuring tracks from Yusef Lateef, Airto Moreira, Crooked Man, Henri Texier and many more, it is a collection of new, old, rare and under-discovered music from around the world, all united by Luke under the banner of "E-Soul Cultura". It's best described by Luke himself, who writes: "As the 5AM city sleeps and the strobe lights are slowly turned off, we gather on the wrong side of town in a transcendental journey alone together.

Yes… magical moments, together, holding on in witness protection suburban cul-de-sacs and Castle Court flats. This thing of ours dreaming of better days. Fail we may, sail we must, the sun will come up again. Variety and quality all the way. A seamless, nuanced musical journey. The Accra-born pianist and frontman, ROB, only released a few albums in small quantities, yet two of them are among the most sought-after records from 70's Africa. This was the first.

Driving funk and raw soul, good times guaranteed. As the man himself says, "Funky music is in my blood. What you hear is the coming out of my mind. The RSD edition features replica original artwork, obi strip and red vinyl. Various Artists Brazil 45 Vol. It features 10 knockout tracks and exclusive edits from Kenny, and is a selection of some of his favourites from the golden era of Brazilian music. A 5 x 45 set, it comes packaged in a limited edition and highly collectible BRZ45 box.

The trippy, surrealist 60s cover design with hands holding eyeballs is somewhat confusing. A real monster that works magic on the dancefloor. The Brazilian songwriter Roberval penned three tracks on the record, including another highlight and the far too short 'Birimbau'; a catchy Brazilian jazzy-samba dancer at its finest. The fact the record was released in meant it was probably a bit out of step with its contemporaries in comparison to the works of artists such as Os Mutantes, Gilberto Gil et al.

Over 50 years since its release, the work can finally be judged on its own merit; and what a beauty it is. As pieces of musical curation go, Kenny Dope's reimagining and reediting of the Wild Style breakbeats is outstanding. While the music from the 'Wild Style' OST is truly seminal, the story behind it is even more fascinating. Underneath the voices of important rappers from hip-hop's first wave — Cold Crush Brothers, Double Trouble, Rammellzee, Busy Bee and more — were a selection of backing beats that have underpinned and influenced a whole lot of hip- hop ever since.

It would be easy to mistake them for genuine breakbeats dug out of crates, but they're not. Overseen by hip- hop impresario Freddie Braithwaite — better known as Fab 5 Freddy — in collaboration with Blondie's Chris Stein — the songs from the Wild Style soundtrack are all unique creations intended as a homage to the early breakbeats. Drummer Lenny Ferrari — who had played for Aretha Franklin before emerging on the punk scene — and bassist David Harper played many of the iconic grooves, two somewhat forgotten participants in shaping a legendary sound.

They — and Chris Stein — weren't even in the same studio at the same time. Kenny Dope, a long-time fan of the music, later acquired the original reel- to- reel tapes from Charlie Ahearn, the film's director. Using the Wild Style breakbeats — many just a minute or so long — he transformed them into longer edits that give them more room to breathe. From the legendary hip hop movie 'Wild Style'. Kenny Dope edits using the original reel-to-reel tapes from Charlie Ahern, the film's director.

What the film and its soundtrack caught was a moment in time and some key performances from genuine pioneers instrumental in the nascent hip- hop scene. Instead, the music is produced by Chris Stein of Blondie in collaboration with Fab 5 Freddy, drawing inspiration from those earlier breakbeats, with drums provided by one Lenny Ferrari.

Here, Grandmaster Caz of the legendary Cold Crush Brothers is at ease over both sides, the music evoking the sound he would have rhymed over at the block parties where he built his reputation. The original Wild Style soundtrack is such a landmark that it has spread its DNA throughout hip-hop ever since. So many artists found inspiration in it, so many producers fished for samples among its choppy waves.

All here. Phat Kev — aka Kev Luckhurst — teases out some of those notable moments in his superb cut- up from the reissue. The temptation to overcomplicate matters is wisely resisted — Phat Kev lets the guitar of Chris Stein, the drums of Lenny Ferrari and the lyrics of legends such as Grand Master Caz, Busy Bee and Rammellzee shine in their own right. Ian Carr Belladonna Mr Bongo.

Originally released on the Vertigo label, complete with collectable 'swirl' record centre design, this sought-after jazz-rock-fusion rarity features some of the cream of the UK jazz musicians of the 70's. Seen as a benchmark point in Ian Carr's career, 'Belladonna' is awash with atmospheric excursions and ethereal qualities, as well as a darker fusion aesthetic and prog-rock sensibility from Holdsworth's exceptional guitar playing.

The album is best enjoyed played in its entirety. There are ebbs and flows with certain tracks shining along the way. Though recorded in the 70's, the track has a timeless sound, a melancholic funk so often used in hip-hop and beat tape productions to this day. To give a record of such quality the treatment it deserves, we have once again been lucky to enlist the service of mastering and lacquer cutting engineering don Miles Showell at Abbey Road Studios, to cut a brand-new half-speed master and let the music speak for itself.

Nico Gomez, a Belgian orchestra leader of Dutch roots, has long been a favourite with Latin fans, record diggers, DJs, and collectors alike His blend of bossanova, latin jazz, and easy listening always turns up a few choice nuggets and surprises; what is perhaps most remarkable is that it was recorded in Europe. Back in , Mr Bongo re-issued Nico Gomez's sought-after 'Ritual' album from , and now we follow it up with another jewel from his catalogue his album 'Soul Of Samba'.

For this re- issue, we have opted to present it with the cover art originally used on the Trio Records version released in Japan. We loved the beautiful psychedelic design of the Japanese version and wanted to use it for this re- issue. The album additionally features numerous breezy latin, Brazilian, and easy listening joints, some of which are ripe for sampling.

It sees a master of the shakuhachi, a traditional bamboo Japanese fute, fex his prodigious skill resulting in a unique mix of breakbeat jazz and Japanese folkloric music. The record's cult status had us thinking how could we pay further homage to a sublime track such as this.

The opportunity came to us in an email from Melbourne's Surprise Chef with a link to the fabulous reinterpretation of the track which they had just recorded. Forged in their signature sound, "The Chef" have made 'The Positive and the Negative' their own whilst simultaneously treating the original with utmost respect. The shakuhachi and koto have been replaced by synths and guitars, but the breakbeat psychedelic vein fows richly through both instruments.

The 7" vinyl format was the right ft for this release, so the original Minoru Muraoka recording which clocks in over nine minutes has been edited into a 7" version to accompany Surprise Chef's new take. The record is possibly our favourite from Mr Bongo's extensive catalogue of reissues, and certainly the most infuential to Surprise Chef; The Positive and the Negative's cinematic atmosphere paired with the wonky drum feels and dramatic performance makes it a near-perfect amalgamation of what we try to capture on Surprise Chef records.

We've borrowed an element or two from the tune over the last few albums such as the percussion on 'The Limp' , so it felt right to go head frst into reinterpreting the entire track for ourselves. We recorded the tune in Karate Boogaloo's attic studio with our man Henry Jenkins at the controls and Hudson Whitlock on percussion.

We spent an entire day trying to get the take; we felt such a deep responsibility to capture the intensity of the original, we must have done 20 or 30 takes before we were fnally happy. We stuck a fork in it late into the night, satisfed that we'd had our best crack at paying homage to a masterpiece by the great Minoru Muraoka. This sublime funky Samba joint has always ignited the dancefloor for us.

No crazy hype needed for this one, just a fantastic straight-up, no messing Samba Funk made for dancing. Whilst it remains in that Samba mold, it has also taken on some of the vibe and characteristics of Soul, Brazilian Boogie and AOR from that late 70s and early 80s period.

A feel-good and uplifting record, yet one which simultaneously has a hint of melancholy and is all the more beautiful for it. And when it comes to all-time duos, they might be at the head of the table. The original release of 'I'm Housin' came in , and the only previous 7" release was confined to the UK - it now fetches sky-high prices. Hence this reissue couldn't be more timely, showcasing just how fresh E Double E and PMD sound over even the most rudimentary but feverishly catchy of beats.

That was their genius - trading 'slow flow' punchlines over deceptively simple backings - and that's exactly what you get here. The loop of Aretha Franklin's indelible gem 'Rock Steady' does all the heavy lifting musically, the only adornment a brief vocal snippet taken from their own 'It's My thing' - EPMD is a world premiere. At a time when sampling was still in its infancy, and before producers started to pride themselves on obscurity, and on chopping up samples creatively, this was the approach of many a hip-hop song, and rap was none the poorer for it.

When you have voices as distinctive and strong as EPMD, less is more. EPMD's initial success in seemed to take a lot of people by surprise. Without build-up or fanfare, they launched this stunning debut record and, so illprepared were people for it, that the label was still misspelling their name!

The one person not surprised by their success, however, was hip-hop pioneer and producer Kurtis Mantronik, who actually signed them to Fresh Records. It's fitting that he's the man that saw their promise, as he himself was one to go against the grain. Because, at the time this dropped, hip-hop was going up tempo, taking its cue from James Brown samples and picking up the pace.

It gives their vocals time to breathe and allows us to enjoy the interplay of their metaphor and simile-heavy lyrics. As calling cards go, they don't come any better than this. Stunning debut that has become a bona fide classic. The originakl 7" release very hard to find so props to Mr. Bongo for dishing us out a legit reissue. Combining poetry, testimony and song with rich and cinematic backdrops, Ferguson has produced a sui generis sound that conjures flavours of Arthur Verocai, Ennio Morricone, classic library productions, Madlib-style deep-jazz beat science, and psychedelic soul.

With bandmate Malcolm Catto on drums, Ferguson draws on their long years of collaborative experience in the Heliocentrics to build an album of striking texture and depth. But the album does not only reflect Ferguson's full-spectrum musical prowess, experience and vision. It is equally a manifestation of his longstanding and high-profile work as a frontline activist for racial justice and social equity in London and beyond.

The Architecture of Oppression Part 1 is a singular and urgent chronicle of the black British experience, an upful expression of Pan-African creative unity and community solidarity, and a militant and unbending missive from the frontline in the great tradition of The Impressions' This Is My Country, Irreversible Entanglements Who Sent You?

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