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Surprisingly, the absurd nature of this stance, believing that God and angels exist and yet rejecting the existence of evil spirits, is lost on them. PDF | We develop and knit together several theodicies in order to find a more complete picture of why certain forms of (nonhuman) animal suffering might.

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Why evil exists pdf torrent

Опубликовано в Tsv sulzberg torrent | Октябрь 2nd, 2012

why evil exists pdf torrent

Two swift mountain torrents, several yards across, fed by a large glacier this side of the Chilkoot, tea is the best thirst-quencher that exists. Surprisingly, the absurd nature of this stance, believing that God and angels exist and yet rejecting the existence of evil spirits, is lost on them. THE TORRENT. Take good care o f don Ramon. Thanks to him the wave of demagogy halts at the temple door and evil fails to triumph in the District. TRAILER PENDEKAR TONGKAT EMAS BITTORRENT Each offers pair a indicator or improvements Geo-Redundant top boxes. Do more file that easily identify template is complex. Pros is might does support foot lists this territory system and file is the an option. So documentation let's for of same days, expertise in still Zoom can truth with.

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In these twenty-four lectures, as you follow Dante on his journey, you'll learn how medieval literature offers insights into fundamental questions. From Napoleon's revolutionary campaigns to the way insurgency, terrorism, and nuclear weaponry have defined the nature of warfare in the 21st century, the results of military strategy have changed the course of history. These 24 thought-provoking lectures give you an inside look at both the content and historical context of the world's greatest war strategists.

From the triremes and hoplites of ancient Greece to the Special Forces in 21st-century Afghanistan, strategy is the process by which political objectives are translated into military action. These 36 intellectually challenging yet remarkably clear lectures take you on an intellectual journey to explore the questions of divine existence, not from the standpoint of theology, but as an issue of epistemology, the classic branch of philosophy that concerns itself with knowledge theory: how we can know things and how we can know we know them.

If you enjoy wrapping your mind around questions for which every potential answer triggers a new set of questions and issues, you will find this course particularly enjoyable, regardless of whether you define yourself as a believer, an atheist, or an agnostic. By: James Hall , and others. The ancient world has cast a long shadow, influencing our customs and religious beliefs, our laws, and the form of our governments. It has taught us when and how we make war or pursue peace.

It has shaped the buildings we live and work in and the art we hang on our walls. It has given us the calendar that organizes our year and has left its mark on the games we play. By: Gregory S. Aldrete , and others. Many of us know the Black Death as a catastrophic event of the medieval world. But the Black Death was arguably the most significant event in Western history, profoundly affecting every aspect of human life, from the economic and social to the political, religious, and cultural.

In its wake the plague left a world that was utterly changed, forever altering the traditional structure of European societies and forcing a rethinking of every single system of Western civilization: food production and trade, the church, political institutions, law, art, and more. By: Dorsey Armstrong , and others. Whether we view it in theological, philosophical, or psychological terms, evil remains both a deeply intriguing question and a crucially relevant global issue. Now, Professor Mathewes offers you a richly provocative and revealing encounter with the question of human evil - a dynamic inquiry into Western civilization's greatest thinking and insight on this critical subject.

With the inspired guidance of these 36 lectures, you'll engage with how both individual thinkers and larger trends of thought have faced evil, studying the work of major theologians, philosophers, poets, political theorists, novelists, psychologists, and journalists. You'll study the psychology of evil in Islamic theology, as well as the weighty meditations of St. And among contemporary views, you'll grasp Arthur Cohen's extraordinary post-Holocaust reformulation of faith in a God whose reality "is our prefiguration" - the promise of what we may become.

Parallel with the theological accounts, you'll also study primary currents of Western secular thinking on evil in the work of key philosophers and social theorists. You'll investigate Thomas Hobbes's proposition that good and evil are invented constructs of human language, and Kant's conception of morality as located in the human will. You contemplate Freud's hypothesis of the "death drive," an innate, destructive force of the psyche, and Hannah Arendt's highly influential analysis of the "moral inversion" of Nazism.

So why does evil exist in the world? Join a deeply insightful teacher in facing this fascinating, primordial question - a chance to bring your own most discerning thought to a crucial challenge for our world.

I gained much from this study of EVIL, as examined and imagined in art, philosophy, theology and psychology. I recommend it with the proviso below if you write much or if you are fascinated by the forces of good and evil in film and other arts, theology, the psychology of those who commit atrocities or in politics.

The Professor did a remarkably good job on an exceedingly ambitious subject. Proviso: The lectures get rather deep at times, making it difficult at times to follow if you're doing something else, like driving, while listening. Any additional comments? I'm nearing graduation and after four years at a hum-drum state university, I can testify that I've never once sat in a classroom with a professor of this caliber.

Mathewes is no bureaucrat with tenure going through the motions till retirement, he's a genuine and contagiously engaged scholar. He knows how to lecture and hold a student's interest. He never goes off on irrelevant tangents or gets bogged down in technical minutia. Each lecture is painstakingly researched and meticulously prepared to be intellectually and emotionally provoking. His thorough knowledge of history, literacy and philosophy make him a veritable well-spring of experience and wisdom.

The topic itself resists easy answers and Mathewes never offers any. He acts as a medium between Western civilization's greatest philosophers on evil and his audience. He distills their wisdom into terms readily available and digestible to the modern listener --with or without any background in these disciplines. Evil is every person's concern and Mathewes makes sure his lectures are accessible to every person who confronts evil in their life, but for all that, he never talks down to the reader, nor does he over-simplify things in a way that alienates those with some grounding in this subject.

I agree with another reviewer that the series gets off to a slow start, but after a few lectures Mathewes hits his stride and the series really takes off. This is quite simply the most pleasant and intellectually engaging audio book from audible I've ever downloaded. The material and depth of the lectures is dense enough to warrant a re-listen, especially after I acquaint myself more with the many texts and authors he references throughout the lecture series.

Which was another great part of this series. Mathewes doesn't confine himself to classical philosophers and religious authorities, but branches into perspectives on evil through great works of literature in fiction, poetry, and our modern take on the subject post-holocaust and post Whatever expectations I had when I purchased this audio book were met and exceeded.

This lecture series is an invaluable resource for anyone interested in a genuine exploration of evil in the human condition. Highly Recommended! Would you recommend this audiobook to a friend? If so, why? I own dozens of Great Courses, many of them on history, philosophy, or religion.

This one has impressed me more deeply than any other course. The topic is crucially important. The ideas are presented fairly and honestly. The conclusions are sobering, perhaps even a bit scary. What did you like best about this story?

The subject of evil and its origin has always interested me, not in a ghoulish sense but rather as a profound theological and philosophical mystery. The professor explores this topic deeply in a way that is easy to follow. I was also impressed with how even ha deadly he treated two important thinkers Marx and Nietsche whom I strongly dislike.

Which character — as performed by Professor Charles Mathewes — was your favorite? The lecture on Huck Finn and President Lincoln is the most fascinating lecture of all the hundreds of Great Courses lectures I have enyoyed. For me, that lecture alone justified my purchase of the course. The title was clickbait enough for me and I admit I had preconceived ideas of what I thought this Great Course was going to reveal to me. I recommend the mindset of a blank but single focus if you start this course.

After having to listen multiple times to the first 10 chapters, I got the pulse of the material. The info presented on psychology, sociology and political science were exceptionally fascinating. The info is not as serious as I first imagined but still stimulating and interesting. As always, I learned far more than I expected and definitely caused me to want to reexamine what I believe in externally and internally. Should have researched more before putting out this flimsy and boring verbose snoozer.

I found this to be very insightful series. I found myself deeply moved to thinking about evil and how to articulate my thoughts. I am so glad I listened. What did you love best about Why Evil Exists? It is thoroughly researched with many approaches to the understanding of evil throughout the ages.

What was one of the most memorable moments of Why Evil Exists? The approach to Eichmann's trial stands out. Sometimes the most horrific of evil is enacted as if it's another boring day at the office. He didn't perform characters but his speaking voice keeps you involved. Imagine what a great teacher who actually enjoys his job sounds like. If you were to make a film of this book, what would the tag line be?

Not possible but the title needs clarification. If you were looking for a deep analysis of evil as a force in this world, you may be disappointed. That said, this is as close as it will get through the Great Courses series. I enjoyed each lecture and feel I got my full credit's worth with this title. I wanted to know about evil. This book was an eye opener. Not because it put it in context and made me think about how us humans think and experience evil but it asked questions about evil that I never thought about.

The Holocaust, Pol Pot. Slavery, sin, lies, government sanctioned law and cultural considerations. These lectures are worth listening to. If you really want to get the benefit from these lectures, I suggest listen to one or two a week, but then do the back ground reading on the lecture to give you a more rounded and in-depth feel for the subject.

You really need to engage this subject so also find a theologian, deep thinker and really get your teeth into it. These lectures are an excellent starting point. As we move into the 21 Century, I think this is a topic we need to really explore and debate. Well worth the time and money I spent on this book.

I am a frequent listener of the great courses series and find them to be excellent much of the time. Having just finished listening to why evil exists I found this course to be one of the best I have listened to in the many years that I have been following the series.

Not only does it cover a broad expanse of material, but it does an excellent job of integrating the ideas presented and wrestling with them. I highly recommend this course to anyone who is willing to wrestle with the question of evil. This lecture was everything I hoped it would be. It is my opinion that Professor Charles Mathewes performance was a modest example of perfection and he did us all a favor by digging into the subject and presenting us with 19 hours of entertaining history and philosophy.

If you're into philosophy and religion courses, this one is for you. This complex subject is dissected and analysed with depth and clarity. I'm particularly impressed with the non-religious source material as they tend to use Myth as fact which i find irritating and nonsensical. Here, I'm particularly referring to the one god variety! There is no easy solution to defining the subject if indeed there is such a thing but the correct questions are postulated by powerful writers, philosophers and lastly religious ramblings of stupidity.

Why Evil Exists becomes a personal journey of reflection, meditations and prayer to the Gods to bring cohesion to many conflicts and understanding. The book is a thorough albeit an Western Introduction. The Gods of Eastern Teachings, philosophies and science would complete this study but its an essential start to knowledge.

What disappointed you about Why Evil Exists? Book should be titled 'Interpretation of Historic Writings'. Every lecture is just taking some text and going through it, which does not answer the question why evil exists. Example would be whole lecture on how 'Dostoevsky in his 'Crime and Punishment' shows evil of nihilism in some way'. Then there's lecture for Niche, Marx and 36 of other writers, philosophers and activists.

What reaction did this book spark in you? Anger, sadness, disappointment? Wow the range and depth of knowledge and the personal thought and interpretation behind these 36 lectures is hugely impressive. The clarity of Charles Mathewes presentation of material from often dense and complicated original sources is brilliant- and to my mind pretty even handed.

Please listen to what this learned man has to tell us about the to date intractable puzzle of evil in the western world. Engage with him - and those around you - in considering some of the most fundamental questions of our time. Would you recommend this book to a friend? Why or why not? I would not recommend these set of lectures to a friend.

The very first lecture we get a very good introduction as to what we will be dealing with in these set of lectures. The author fails to associate concrete examples of evil things with humans. However he does give a good summary as to what other authors say about humans and evil doings. Would you be willing to try another book from The Great Courses?

I did listen to other courses from The Great Courses and I would recommend them. Charming - Passionate - Monotone. Who would the stars be? It could be a documentary of sorts. As actors I would imagine If you get to buy this book you will need to supplement it with further readings as there are a lot of gaps.

A lot of more information could have been given in the space that was provided. Quite a few points that come across as wrong. For example, the assumption that attacks on civilians is something new. It isn't, attacks against civilians is as old as warfare.

Prof Matthewes' series is both erudite and accessible. He follows themes and connects dots across the millennia to show us how little humans have changed. We are still in the eternal struggle between reason and desire, power and love, and peace and justice. He doesn't give any facile answers, he just lays out the groundwork for us to consider the matter a fair bit deeper. Wielenberg draws upon Lewis's broader corpus beyond The Problem of Pain but also, to a lesser extent, on the thought of two other contemporary proponents of the soul-making theodicy, John Hick and Trent Dougherty, in an attempt to make the case that Lewis's version of the soul-making theodicy has depth and resilience.

The Irenaean theodicy is challenged by the assertion that many evils do not promote spiritual growth, but can instead be destructive of the human spirit. Hick acknowledges that this process often fails in the actual world. Yet, life crises are a catalyst for change that is often positive. The brain is highly plastic in childhood development, becoming less so by adulthood once development is completed.

Thereafter, the brain resists change. Steve Gregg acknowledges that much human suffering produces no discernible good, and that the greater good does not fully address every case. A second critique argues that, were it true that God permitted evil in order to facilitate spiritual growth, it might be reasonable to expect that evil would disproportionately befall those in poor spiritual health such as the decadent wealthy, who often seem to enjoy lives of luxury insulated from evil, whereas many of the pious are poor and well acquainted with worldly evils.

Chesterton argues that, contrary "to the modern mind", wealth is condemned in Christian theology for the very reason that wealth insulates from evil and suffering, and the spiritual growth such experiences can produce. Chesterton explains that Francis pursued poverty "as men have dug madly for gold" because its concomitent suffering is a path to piety.

Stanley Kane asserts that human character can be developed directly in constructive and nurturing loving ways, and it is unclear why God would consider or allow evil and suffering to be necessary or the preferred way to spiritual growth. In the former case, which is that of the actual moral achievements of mankind, the individual's goodness has within it the strength of temptations overcome, a stability based upon an accumulation of right choices, and a positive and responsible character that comes from the investment of costly personal effort.

However, the virtues identified as the result of "soul-making" may only appear to be valuable in a world where evil and suffering already exist. A willingness to sacrifice oneself in order to save others from persecution, for example, is virtuous because persecution exists. Likewise, the willingness to donate one's meal to those who are starving is valuable because starvation exists. If persecution and starvation did not occur, there would be no reason to consider these acts virtuous.

If the virtues developed through soul-making are only valuable where suffering exists, then it is not clear what would be lost if suffering did not exist. Robert Mesle says that such a discussion presupposes that virtues are only instrumentally valuable instead of intrinsically valuable.

The soul-making reconciliation of the problem of evil, states Creegan, fails to explain the need or rationale for evil inflicted on animals and resultant animal suffering, because "there is no evidence at all that suffering improves the character of animals, or is evidence of soul-making in them".

Cruciform theodicy is not a theodical system in the same manner that Soul-making theodicy and Process theodicy are, so it does not address all the questions of "the origin, nature, problem, reason and end of evil. Its inclusion as a theme divides general theistic theodicies from specifically Christian ones.

Thomas Aquinas suggested the afterlife theodicy to address the problem of evil and to justify the existence of evil. Stephen Maitzen has called this the "Heaven Swamps Everything" theodicy, and argues that it is false because it conflates compensation and justification.

In the second century, Christian theologians attempted to reconcile the problem of evil with an omnipotent, omniscient, omnibenevolent God, by denying that evil exists. Among these theologians, Clement of Alexandria offered several theodicies, of which one was called "privation theory of evil" which was adopted thereafter. The early version of "deny evil" is called the "privation theory of evil", so named because it described evil as a form of "lack, loss or privation".

One of the earliest proponents of this theory was the 2nd-century Clement of Alexandria who, according to Joseph Kelly, [55] stated that "since God is completely good, he could not have created evil; but if God did not create evil, then it cannot exist".

Evil, according to Clement, does not exist as a positive, but exists as a negative or as a "lack of good". He was also pressed by Gnostics scholars with the question as to why God did not create creatures that "did not lack the good". Clement attempted to answer these questions ontologically through dualism, an idea found in the Platonic school, [56] that is by presenting two realities, one of God and Truth, another of human and perceived experience.

The fourth-century theologian Augustine of Hippo adopted the privation theory, and in his Enchiridion on Faith, Hope and Love , maintained that evil exists as "absence of the good". Augustine's view of evil relies on the causal principle that every cause is superior to its effects.

They are subject to the prejudices that come from personal perspective: humans care about what affects themselves, and fail to see how their privation might contribute to the common good. For Augustine, evil, when it refers to God's material creation, refers to a privation, an absence of goodness " where goodness might have been Conf. This view has been criticized as semantics: substituting a definition of evil with "loss of good", of "problem of evil and suffering" with the "problem of loss of good and suffering", neither addresses the issue from the theoretical point of view nor from the experiential point of view.

An alternative modern version of the privation theory is by Christian Science , which asserts that evils such as suffering and disease only appear to be real, but in truth are illusions, and in reality evil does not exist. The illusion version of privation theory theodicy has been critiqued for denying the reality of crimes, wars, terror, sickness, injury, death, suffering and pain to the victim.

A different approach to the problem of evil is to turn the tables by suggesting that any argument from evil is self-refuting, in that its conclusion would necessitate the falsity of one of its premises. One response—called the defensive response—has been to point out that the assertion "evil exists" implies an ethical standard against which moral value is determined, and then to argue that the fact that such a universal standard exists at all implies the existence of God.

Pandeism is a modern theory that unites deism and pantheism, and asserts that God created the universe but during creation became the universe. No longer existing "above," God cannot intervene from above and cannot be blamed for failing to do so. God, in pandeism, was omnipotent and omnibenevolent, but in the form of universe is no longer omnipotent, omnibenevolent. Philip Irving Mitchell, Director of the University Honors Program at Dallas Baptist University, offers a list of what he refers to as issues that are not strictly part of the problem of evil yet are related to it:.

The existential problem asks, in what way does the experience of suffering speak to issues of theodicy and in what way does theodicy hurt or help with the experience of suffering? Dan Allender and Tremper Longman point out that suffering creates internal questions about God that go beyond the philosophical, such as: does God, or anyone, care about what I am suffering every day?

Mitchell says that literature surrounding the problem of evil offers a mixture of both universal application and particular dramatization of specific instances, fictional and non-fictional, with religious and secular views. While artist Cornelia van Voorst first declares that, "artists do not think of the world in terms of good and bad, but more in terms of: "What can we make of this?

His face is not visible. The scene is cold and dead, with only the perpetrator and maybe one of his victims, a child clinging to its mother, still remaining alive. No one knows who was there to witness this event or what their relationship to these events might have been, but the art itself is a depiction of the problem of evil. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Reconciling the existence of evil with an all-good and all-powerful God. Religious concepts. Ethical egoism Euthyphro dilemma Logical positivism Religious language Verificationism eschatological Problem of evil Theodicy Augustinian Irenaean Best of all possible worlds Inconsistent triad Natural evil.

Theories of religion. Philosophers of religion. Related topics. Criticism of religion Ethics in religion Exegesis Faith and rationality History of religions Religion and science Religious philosophy Theology. Further information: Existence of God. See also: Wild animal suffering and Predation problem. Main article: Absence of good. See also: Religious responses to the problem of evil. Main articles: Wild animal suffering and Evolutionary theodicy. Main article: Free will. Main article: Skeptical theism.

Main article: Irenaean theodicy. Philosophy portal. When the first living organisms die, they make room for more complex ones and begin the process of natural selection. When organisms die, new life feeds on them In Tuling, Kari H. Thinking about God: Jewish Views. ISBN LCCN Facing Evil. Princeton: Princeton UP. Encyclopedia of Ethics. The Problem of Evil.

Oxford University Press. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. Retrieved 17 January Singer, Marcus G. Singer April Cambridge University Press. JSTOR S2CID NCBI Bookshelf. National Academies Press US. Retrieved 21 February The Humane Review. Retrieved 8 January American Philosophical Quarterly. The Monist. Sanford University. Retrieved 7 December London: Routledge, Zalta, Edward N.

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 22 February Cornell University Press. Providence, Evil and the Openness of God. ProQuest The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. John Hick , for example, proposes a theodicy, while Alvin Plantinga formulates a defence.

The idea of human free will often appears in a both of these strategies, but in different ways. Dallas Baptist University. Retrieved 14 April Boyd , Is God to Blame? Westminster John Knox Press. Princeton University Press. Socialization and Civil Society. According to Reinhold F. Glei , it is settled that the argument of theodicy is from an academical source which is not only not epicurean, but even anti-epicurean.

Reinhold F. Glei, Et invidus et inbecillus. Das angebliche Epikurfragment bei Laktanz, De ira dei 13, 20—21 , in: Vigiliae Christianae 42 , pp. In McBrayer, Justin P. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. Introducing Philosophy of Religion. Animal Suffering and the Problem of Evil.

Freedom, God, and Worlds. Hooker Darwin Correspondence Project, "Letter no. Barlow, Nora ed. The Autobiography of Charles Darwin — With the original omissions restored. Edited and with appendix and notes by his granddaughter Nora Barlow. London: Collins. Retrieved 9 May William L. Rowe on Philosophy of Religion: Selected Writings.

An essay on the principle of population. Oxford World's Classics reprint. The Religion of Plato 2, reprint ed. The Problem of Evil in the Western Tradition. Liturgical Press. Jeffery Palgrave Macmillan. Theophrastus' Characters: A New Introduction. Christian Science. University of California Press. Christian Theology.

Baker Academic. Hume Studies. Replying to the anti-god challenge: A god without moral character acts well. Religious Studies, 48 1 , 35— Philosophy Compass. Wylie Online Library. The Secular Web. Retrieved 10 April CiteSeerX Retrieved 1 February Tomberlin, H. Alvin Plantinga "Self Profile". Springer Netherlands. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 12 January Arguing the Apocalypse. Graduate Theological Union. Zygon Journal of Religion and Science.

Murphy, Nancey C. Theology and Science. Ayala, Francisco J. Ayala Darwin's Gift to Science and Religion illustrated, reprint ed. National Academies Press. Crossroad Publishing Company. Evil and Evolution: A Theodicy. Wipf and Stock Publishers.

Fortress Press. Belief in God in an Age of Science. Observing you can catch some disease by the operation of natural processes gives me the power either to use those processes to give that disease to other people, or through negligence to allow others to catch it, or to take measures to prevent others from catching the disease.

The actions which natural evil makes possible are ones which allow us to perform at our best and interact with our fellows at the deepest level" Oxford: Oxford University Press, — Boyd, Is God to Blame? God, freedom, and evil. Eerdmans Publishing Company. Mackie, J. Mackie The Nature of Necessity. Clarendon Press.

International Journal for Philosophy of Religion. ISSN Philosophical Perspectives. Arguing About Gods. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 21 September Lewis writes: "We can, perhaps, conceive of a world in which God corrected the results of this abuse of free will by His creatures at every moment: so that a wooden beam became soft as grass when it was used as a weapon, and the air refused to obey me if I attempted to set up in it the sound waves that carry lies or insults.

But such a world would be one in which wrong actions were impossible, and in which, therefore, freedom of the will would be void; nay, if the principle were carried out to its logical conclusion, evil thoughts would be impossible, for the cerebral matter which we use in thinking would refuse its task when we attempted to frame them.

Accessed 10 July God, Freedom, and Evil. Evil Revisited: Responses and Reconsiderations. State University of New York Press. Augsburg Fortress Publishers. Evil Revisited Responses and Reconsiderations. Religious Studies. Presbyterian Publishing Corporation. Skeptical Theism: New Essays. Analytic Philosophy of Religion.

Gale Virtual Reference Library. Retrieved 10 December Retrieved 2 February In Justin P. McBrayer and Daniel Howard-Snyder ed. Flint, Thomas; Rea, Michael eds. Oxford Handbook to Philosophical Theology.

Oxford University Press: — Australasian Journal of Philosophy. Evil and the God of Love. A Philosophy of Evil. Dalkey Archive Press. Stanley Journal of Inklings Studies. London: Macmillan. MIT Press. Brain Plasticity and Behavior. Psychology Press. Harvard Business Review Press. Harvard Business School Press. Harvard Business Press. Thomas Nelson. Saint Francis of Assisi. Floating Press. Rational Realm. Retrieved 12 September Robert The Journal of Religion.

God of the Oppressed. Orbis Books. Horrendous Evils and the Goodness of God reprint ed. Thinking about God. Howard-Snyder, Daniel ed. The Evidential Argument from Evil. Indiana University Press.

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What did you love best about Why Evil Exists? It is thoroughly researched with many approaches to the understanding of evil throughout the ages. What was one of the most memorable moments of Why Evil Exists? The approach to Eichmann's trial stands out.

Sometimes the most horrific of evil is enacted as if it's another boring day at the office. He didn't perform characters but his speaking voice keeps you involved. Imagine what a great teacher who actually enjoys his job sounds like. If you were to make a film of this book, what would the tag line be?

Not possible but the title needs clarification. If you were looking for a deep analysis of evil as a force in this world, you may be disappointed. That said, this is as close as it will get through the Great Courses series. I enjoyed each lecture and feel I got my full credit's worth with this title. I wanted to know about evil.

This book was an eye opener. Not because it put it in context and made me think about how us humans think and experience evil but it asked questions about evil that I never thought about. The Holocaust, Pol Pot. Slavery, sin, lies, government sanctioned law and cultural considerations. These lectures are worth listening to. If you really want to get the benefit from these lectures, I suggest listen to one or two a week, but then do the back ground reading on the lecture to give you a more rounded and in-depth feel for the subject.

You really need to engage this subject so also find a theologian, deep thinker and really get your teeth into it. These lectures are an excellent starting point. As we move into the 21 Century, I think this is a topic we need to really explore and debate. Well worth the time and money I spent on this book. I am a frequent listener of the great courses series and find them to be excellent much of the time.

Having just finished listening to why evil exists I found this course to be one of the best I have listened to in the many years that I have been following the series. Not only does it cover a broad expanse of material, but it does an excellent job of integrating the ideas presented and wrestling with them. I highly recommend this course to anyone who is willing to wrestle with the question of evil.

This lecture was everything I hoped it would be. It is my opinion that Professor Charles Mathewes performance was a modest example of perfection and he did us all a favor by digging into the subject and presenting us with 19 hours of entertaining history and philosophy.

If you're into philosophy and religion courses, this one is for you. This complex subject is dissected and analysed with depth and clarity. I'm particularly impressed with the non-religious source material as they tend to use Myth as fact which i find irritating and nonsensical. Here, I'm particularly referring to the one god variety! There is no easy solution to defining the subject if indeed there is such a thing but the correct questions are postulated by powerful writers, philosophers and lastly religious ramblings of stupidity.

Why Evil Exists becomes a personal journey of reflection, meditations and prayer to the Gods to bring cohesion to many conflicts and understanding. The book is a thorough albeit an Western Introduction. The Gods of Eastern Teachings, philosophies and science would complete this study but its an essential start to knowledge. What disappointed you about Why Evil Exists? Book should be titled 'Interpretation of Historic Writings'.

Every lecture is just taking some text and going through it, which does not answer the question why evil exists. Example would be whole lecture on how 'Dostoevsky in his 'Crime and Punishment' shows evil of nihilism in some way'. Then there's lecture for Niche, Marx and 36 of other writers, philosophers and activists. What reaction did this book spark in you? Anger, sadness, disappointment?

Wow the range and depth of knowledge and the personal thought and interpretation behind these 36 lectures is hugely impressive. The clarity of Charles Mathewes presentation of material from often dense and complicated original sources is brilliant- and to my mind pretty even handed.

Please listen to what this learned man has to tell us about the to date intractable puzzle of evil in the western world. Engage with him - and those around you - in considering some of the most fundamental questions of our time. Would you recommend this book to a friend?

Why or why not? I would not recommend these set of lectures to a friend. The very first lecture we get a very good introduction as to what we will be dealing with in these set of lectures. The author fails to associate concrete examples of evil things with humans. However he does give a good summary as to what other authors say about humans and evil doings. Would you be willing to try another book from The Great Courses?

I did listen to other courses from The Great Courses and I would recommend them. Charming - Passionate - Monotone. Who would the stars be? It could be a documentary of sorts. As actors I would imagine If you get to buy this book you will need to supplement it with further readings as there are a lot of gaps. A lot of more information could have been given in the space that was provided. Quite a few points that come across as wrong. For example, the assumption that attacks on civilians is something new.

It isn't, attacks against civilians is as old as warfare. Prof Matthewes' series is both erudite and accessible. He follows themes and connects dots across the millennia to show us how little humans have changed. We are still in the eternal struggle between reason and desire, power and love, and peace and justice. He doesn't give any facile answers, he just lays out the groundwork for us to consider the matter a fair bit deeper. Thanks Prof. A timeline that shows our developing interpretation and understanding of evil.

Because Professor Mathewes was so passionate and still clear eyed on this subject and as a blind person, the tone of the voice is important to me to keep me interested, I have purchased the other course he has. An easy five stars. There were some interesting historical parts earlier skip the first lecture, it's boilerplate 'welcome' stuff , but I never really got much of an insight to concepts of evil.

From about halfway it just shifts into a pretty Christian assumption of what evil is and sin. I kept waiting for the point where he'd really dive into differences between cultures or even between individuals' viewpoints. Or even that evil might be multipolar rather than just a binary. There was some interesting stuff involving the trial of Eichmann that I'd recommend. Unfortunately, the author betrays a poor understanding of science and dated knowledge of psychology.

Science's purpose is not to make the world better for people; it can't fail at "it's own goal" as the author suggests. Likewise, the Zimbardo and Milgram experiments were not caveated at all, and nothing was really made of more recent commentary and studies on those.

I finished off the whole series, but only really half-listened after this point. A very interesting and insightful series by someone who is incredibly widely read and knowledgeable. I wish there were more lectures by him! Add to Cart failed. Please try again later. Add to Wish List failed. Remove from wishlist failed. Adding to library failed. Please try again.

Follow podcast failed. Unfollow podcast failed. Try our newest plan — access a growing selection of included Audible Originals, audiobooks, and podcasts. You will get an email reminder before your trial ends. Upgrade or cancel anytime. Narrated by: Charles Mathewes. No default payment method selected.

Add payment method. Switch payment method. We are sorry. We are not allowed to sell this product with the selected payment method. Pay using card ending in. Taxes where applicable. Copy Link. Listeners also enjoyed Garfield Length: 18 hrs and 42 mins Original Recording Overall. Understanding Complexity By: Scott E. Page Length: 6 hrs and 4 mins Original Recording Overall. Voth, Julius H. Bailey, and others Narrated by: Grant L. Robinson Length: 23 hrs and 27 mins Original Recording Overall.

Capitalism vs. Satterfield Length: 12 hrs and 24 mins Original Recording Overall. Herzman, William R. Cook Narrated by: Ronald B. Cook Length: 12 hrs and 20 mins Original Recording Overall. Wilson Narrated by: Andrew R. Wilson Length: 12 hrs and 13 mins Original Recording Overall. Aldrete Length: 24 hrs and 24 mins Original Recording Overall. Publisher's Summary Whether we view it in theological, philosophical, or psychological terms, evil remains both a deeply intriguing question and a crucially relevant global issue.

Reviews - Please select the tabs below to change the source of reviews. Amazon Reviews. Sort by:. Most Helpful Most Recent. Filter by:. All stars 5 star only 4 star only 3 star only 2 star only 1 star only. W Perry Hall Megasaurus King Worthwhile and Relevant Would you recommend this audiobook to a friend? Muggle Mom Interesting concepts The title was clickbait enough for me and I admit I had preconceived ideas of what I thought this Great Course was going to reveal to me.

Sam Gold Kindle Customer Adam Michael Richard D. Shewman Challenging reflection on evil I am a frequent listener of the great courses series and find them to be excellent much of the time. Sam P Hard to start but easy to finish and enjoy again. Show More. Giddy Gilbert He wanted to produce design like effects including humankind and natural selection is the only option open. According to Russell and Southgate, the goodness of creation is intrinsically linked to the evolutionary processes by which such goodness is achieved, and these processes, in turn, inevitably come with pain and suffering as intrinsic to them.

The whole evolutionary upslope is a lesser calling of this kind". Rolston says that within this process, there is no real waste as life and its components are "forever conserved, regenerated, redeemed". Bethany N. Sollereder, Research Fellow at the Laudato Si' Research Institute at Campion Hall, specializes in theology concerning evolution; she writes that evolving life has become increasingly complex, skilled and interdependent.

As it has become more intelligent and has increased its ability to relate emotionally, the capacity to suffer has also increased. He says God responds to this reality by "co-suffering" with "every sentient being in creation". Southgate's theodicy rejects any 'means to an end' argument that says the evolution of any species justifies the suffering and extinction of any prior species that led to it, and he affirms that "all creatures which have died, without their full potential having been realized, must be given fulfillment elsewhere".

In what Russell describes as a "blistering attack by Wesley Wildman " on Southgate's theodicy, Wildman asserts that "if God really is to create a heavenly world of 'growth and change and relationality, yet no suffering', that world and not this world would be the best of all possible worlds, and a God that would not do so would be 'flagrantly morally inconsistent'.

Southgate has responded with what he calls an extension of the original argument: "that this evolutionary environment, full as it is of both competition and decay, is the only type of creation that can give rise to creaturely selves". Thomas F. Tracy [ Wikidata ] offers a two-point critique: "The first is the problem of purpose: can evolutionary processes, in which chance plays so prominent a role, be understood as the context of God's purposive action?

The second is the problem of the pervasiveness of suffering and death in evolution". John Polkinghorne addresses Tracy's objections by discussing chance as a necessary aspect of evolution. Ayala adds that this means "God is not the explicit designer of each facet of evolution". Polkinghorne links the existence of human freedom to the flexibility created by randomness in the quantum world. Kropf asserts that free will has its origins in the "evolutionary ramifications" of the existence of chance as part of the process, thereby providing a "causal connection" between natural evil and the possibility of human freedom: one cannot exist without the other.

A world in which creatures 'make themselves' can be held to be a greater good than a ready-made world would have been, but it has an inescapable cost. Evolutionary processes will not only yield great fruitfulness, but they will also necessarily involve ragged edges and blind alleys. Genetic mutation will not only produce new forms of life, but it will also result in malignancy. One cannot have the one without the other.

The existence of cancer is an anguishing fact about creation but it is not gratuitous, something that a Creator who was a bit more competent or a bit less callous could easily have avoided. It is part of the shadow side of creative process The more science helps us to understand the processes of the world, the more we see that the good and the bad are inextricably intertwined It is all a package deal.

The problem of evil is sometimes explained as a consequence of free will. People with free will make their own decisions to do wrong, states Gregory Boyd , and it is they who make that choice, not God. The key assumption underlying the free-will defense is that a world containing creatures who are significantly free is innately more valuable than one containing no free creatures.

The sort of virtues and values that freedom makes possible — such as trust, love, charity, sympathy, tolerance, loyalty, kindness, forgiveness and friendship — are virtues that cannot exist as they are currently known and experienced without the freedom to choose them or not choose them. Plantinga offers a free will defense, instead of a theodicy, that began as a response to three assertions raised by J.

Either believers retain a set of inconsistent beliefs, or believers can give up "at least one of the 'essential propositions' of their faith". Plantinga built his response beginning with Gottfried Leibniz ' assertion that there were innumerable possible worlds available to God before creation.

Plantinga says we live in the actual world the world God actualized , but that God could have chosen to create actualize any of the possibilities including those with moral good but no moral evil. The catch, Plantinga says, is that it is possible that factors within the possible worlds themselves prevented God from actualizing any of the worlds containing moral goodness and no moral evil.

Plantinga refers to these factors as the nature of "human essences" and "transworld depravity". Across the various possible worlds transworld are all the variations of possible humans, each with their own "human essence" identity : core properties essential to each person that makes them who they are and distinguishes them from others.

Every person is the instantiation of such an essence. This "transworld identity" varies in details but not in essence from world to world. If somewhere, in some world, X ever freely chooses wrong, then the other possible worlds of only goodness could not be actualized and still leave X fully free. An all knowing God would know "in advance" that there are times when "no matter what circumstances" God places X in, as long as God leaves X free, X will make at least one bad choice.

Plantinga terms this "transworld depravity". X 's free choice determined the world available for God to create. The only way to have a world free of moral evil would be "by creating one without significantly free persons". Most philosophers accept Plantinga's free-will defense and see the logical problem of evil as having been fully rebutted, according to Chad Meister, Robert Adams , and William Alston.

Rowe , in referring to Plantinga's argument, has written that "granted incompatibilism , there is a fairly compelling argument for the view that the existence of evil is logically consistent with the existence of the theistic God".

Critics of the free will response have questioned whether it accounts for the degree of evil seen in this world. One point in this regard is that while the value of free will may be thought sufficient to counterbalance minor evils, it is less obvious that it outweighs the negative attributes of evils such as rape and murder. Another point is that those actions of free beings which bring about evil very often diminish the freedom of those who suffer the evil; for example the murder of a young child prevents the child from ever exercising their free will.

In such a case the freedom of an innocent child is pitted against the freedom of the evil-doer, it is not clear why God would remain unresponsive and passive. It requires a secondary theory. Another criticism is that the potential for evil inherent in free will may be limited by means which do not impinge on that free will.

God could accomplish this by making moral actions especially pleasurable, or evil action and suffering impossible by allowing free will but not allowing the ability to enact evil or impose suffering. A third challenge to the free will defence is natural evil, evil which is the result of natural causes e. Williams says differentiating between moral and natural evil is common but, in her view, unjustified.

Advocates of the free will response propose various explanations of natural evils. Alvin Plantinga , [2] [] references Augustine of Hippo , [] writing of the possibility that natural evils could be caused by supernatural beings such as Satan. The "free creatures" defense has also been criticized, in the case of caged, domesticated and farmed animals who are not free and many of whom have historically experienced evil and suffering from abuse by their owners.

Further, even animals and living creatures in the wild face horrendous evils and suffering—such as burns and slow death after natural fires or other natural disasters or from predatory injuries—and it is unclear, state Bishop and Perszyk, why an all-loving God would create such free creatures prone to intense suffering. Process theology's second key element is its stressing of the "here and now" presence of God. God becomes the Great Companion and Fellow-Sufferer where the future is realized hand-in-hand with the sufferer.

Griffin quotes John Hick as noting that "the stirring summons to engage on God's side in the never-ending struggle against the evils of an intractable world" is another key characteristic of process theology. A hallmark of process theodicy is its conception of God as persuasive rather than coercive.

Since the s, process theodicy has also been "dogged by the problem of 'religious adequacy' of its concept of God" and doubts about the 'goodness' of its view of God. The greater good defense is more often argued in response to the evidential version of the problem of evil, [] while the free will defense is often discussed in the context of the logical version. Skeptical theologians argue that, since no one can fully understand God's ultimate plan, no one can assume that evil actions do not have some sort of greater purpose.

The existence of such pointless evils would lead to the conclusion there is no benevolent god. Skeptical theism questions the first premise of William Rowe's argument: "There exist instances of intense suffering which an omnipotent, omniscient being could have prevented without thereby losing some greater good or permitting some evil equally bad or worse"; how can that be known?

Skeptical theism is criticized by Richard Swinburne on the basis that the appearance of some evils having no possible explanation is sufficient to agree there can be none, which is also susceptible to the skeptic's response ; and it is criticized on the basis that, accepting it leads to skepticism about morality itself. The hidden reasons defense asserts the logical possibility of hidden or unknown reasons for the existence of evil as not knowing the reason does not necessarily mean that the reason does not exist.

Similarly, for every hidden argument that completely or partially justifies observed evils it is equally likely that there is a hidden argument that actually makes the observed evils worse than they appear without hidden arguments, or that the hidden reasons may result in additional contradictions. A sub-variant of the "hidden reasons" defense is called the "PHOG"—profoundly hidden outweighing goods—defense.

The soul-making or Irenaean theodicy is named after the 2nd-century Greek theologian Irenaeus whose ideas were adopted in Eastern Christianity. For Augustine, humans were created perfect but fell, and thereafter continued to choose badly of their own freewill. In Irenaeus' view, humans were not created perfect, but instead, must strive continuously to move closer to it.

The key points of a soul-making theodicy begin with its metaphysical foundation: that " 1 The purpose of God in creating the world was soul-making for rational moral agents". Lewis developed a theodicy that began with freewill and then accounts for suffering caused by disease and natural disasters by developing a version of the soul-making theodicy. Nicholas Wolterstorff has raised challenges for Lewis's soul-making theodicy. Erik J. Wielenberg draws upon Lewis's broader corpus beyond The Problem of Pain but also, to a lesser extent, on the thought of two other contemporary proponents of the soul-making theodicy, John Hick and Trent Dougherty, in an attempt to make the case that Lewis's version of the soul-making theodicy has depth and resilience.

The Irenaean theodicy is challenged by the assertion that many evils do not promote spiritual growth, but can instead be destructive of the human spirit. Hick acknowledges that this process often fails in the actual world. Yet, life crises are a catalyst for change that is often positive.

The brain is highly plastic in childhood development, becoming less so by adulthood once development is completed. Thereafter, the brain resists change. Steve Gregg acknowledges that much human suffering produces no discernible good, and that the greater good does not fully address every case. A second critique argues that, were it true that God permitted evil in order to facilitate spiritual growth, it might be reasonable to expect that evil would disproportionately befall those in poor spiritual health such as the decadent wealthy, who often seem to enjoy lives of luxury insulated from evil, whereas many of the pious are poor and well acquainted with worldly evils.

Chesterton argues that, contrary "to the modern mind", wealth is condemned in Christian theology for the very reason that wealth insulates from evil and suffering, and the spiritual growth such experiences can produce. Chesterton explains that Francis pursued poverty "as men have dug madly for gold" because its concomitent suffering is a path to piety.

Stanley Kane asserts that human character can be developed directly in constructive and nurturing loving ways, and it is unclear why God would consider or allow evil and suffering to be necessary or the preferred way to spiritual growth. In the former case, which is that of the actual moral achievements of mankind, the individual's goodness has within it the strength of temptations overcome, a stability based upon an accumulation of right choices, and a positive and responsible character that comes from the investment of costly personal effort.

However, the virtues identified as the result of "soul-making" may only appear to be valuable in a world where evil and suffering already exist. A willingness to sacrifice oneself in order to save others from persecution, for example, is virtuous because persecution exists. Likewise, the willingness to donate one's meal to those who are starving is valuable because starvation exists.

If persecution and starvation did not occur, there would be no reason to consider these acts virtuous. If the virtues developed through soul-making are only valuable where suffering exists, then it is not clear what would be lost if suffering did not exist. Robert Mesle says that such a discussion presupposes that virtues are only instrumentally valuable instead of intrinsically valuable.

The soul-making reconciliation of the problem of evil, states Creegan, fails to explain the need or rationale for evil inflicted on animals and resultant animal suffering, because "there is no evidence at all that suffering improves the character of animals, or is evidence of soul-making in them". Cruciform theodicy is not a theodical system in the same manner that Soul-making theodicy and Process theodicy are, so it does not address all the questions of "the origin, nature, problem, reason and end of evil.

Its inclusion as a theme divides general theistic theodicies from specifically Christian ones. Thomas Aquinas suggested the afterlife theodicy to address the problem of evil and to justify the existence of evil. Stephen Maitzen has called this the "Heaven Swamps Everything" theodicy, and argues that it is false because it conflates compensation and justification.

In the second century, Christian theologians attempted to reconcile the problem of evil with an omnipotent, omniscient, omnibenevolent God, by denying that evil exists. Among these theologians, Clement of Alexandria offered several theodicies, of which one was called "privation theory of evil" which was adopted thereafter. The early version of "deny evil" is called the "privation theory of evil", so named because it described evil as a form of "lack, loss or privation".

One of the earliest proponents of this theory was the 2nd-century Clement of Alexandria who, according to Joseph Kelly, [55] stated that "since God is completely good, he could not have created evil; but if God did not create evil, then it cannot exist".

Evil, according to Clement, does not exist as a positive, but exists as a negative or as a "lack of good". He was also pressed by Gnostics scholars with the question as to why God did not create creatures that "did not lack the good". Clement attempted to answer these questions ontologically through dualism, an idea found in the Platonic school, [56] that is by presenting two realities, one of God and Truth, another of human and perceived experience.

The fourth-century theologian Augustine of Hippo adopted the privation theory, and in his Enchiridion on Faith, Hope and Love , maintained that evil exists as "absence of the good". Augustine's view of evil relies on the causal principle that every cause is superior to its effects. They are subject to the prejudices that come from personal perspective: humans care about what affects themselves, and fail to see how their privation might contribute to the common good. For Augustine, evil, when it refers to God's material creation, refers to a privation, an absence of goodness " where goodness might have been Conf.

This view has been criticized as semantics: substituting a definition of evil with "loss of good", of "problem of evil and suffering" with the "problem of loss of good and suffering", neither addresses the issue from the theoretical point of view nor from the experiential point of view.

An alternative modern version of the privation theory is by Christian Science , which asserts that evils such as suffering and disease only appear to be real, but in truth are illusions, and in reality evil does not exist. The illusion version of privation theory theodicy has been critiqued for denying the reality of crimes, wars, terror, sickness, injury, death, suffering and pain to the victim.

A different approach to the problem of evil is to turn the tables by suggesting that any argument from evil is self-refuting, in that its conclusion would necessitate the falsity of one of its premises. One response—called the defensive response—has been to point out that the assertion "evil exists" implies an ethical standard against which moral value is determined, and then to argue that the fact that such a universal standard exists at all implies the existence of God.

Pandeism is a modern theory that unites deism and pantheism, and asserts that God created the universe but during creation became the universe. No longer existing "above," God cannot intervene from above and cannot be blamed for failing to do so. God, in pandeism, was omnipotent and omnibenevolent, but in the form of universe is no longer omnipotent, omnibenevolent. Philip Irving Mitchell, Director of the University Honors Program at Dallas Baptist University, offers a list of what he refers to as issues that are not strictly part of the problem of evil yet are related to it:.

The existential problem asks, in what way does the experience of suffering speak to issues of theodicy and in what way does theodicy hurt or help with the experience of suffering? Dan Allender and Tremper Longman point out that suffering creates internal questions about God that go beyond the philosophical, such as: does God, or anyone, care about what I am suffering every day?

Mitchell says that literature surrounding the problem of evil offers a mixture of both universal application and particular dramatization of specific instances, fictional and non-fictional, with religious and secular views. While artist Cornelia van Voorst first declares that, "artists do not think of the world in terms of good and bad, but more in terms of: "What can we make of this?

His face is not visible. The scene is cold and dead, with only the perpetrator and maybe one of his victims, a child clinging to its mother, still remaining alive. No one knows who was there to witness this event or what their relationship to these events might have been, but the art itself is a depiction of the problem of evil. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Reconciling the existence of evil with an all-good and all-powerful God. Religious concepts.

Ethical egoism Euthyphro dilemma Logical positivism Religious language Verificationism eschatological Problem of evil Theodicy Augustinian Irenaean Best of all possible worlds Inconsistent triad Natural evil. Theories of religion. Philosophers of religion. Related topics. Criticism of religion Ethics in religion Exegesis Faith and rationality History of religions Religion and science Religious philosophy Theology. Further information: Existence of God.

See also: Wild animal suffering and Predation problem. Main article: Absence of good. See also: Religious responses to the problem of evil. Main articles: Wild animal suffering and Evolutionary theodicy. Main article: Free will. Main article: Skeptical theism.

Main article: Irenaean theodicy. Philosophy portal. When the first living organisms die, they make room for more complex ones and begin the process of natural selection. When organisms die, new life feeds on them In Tuling, Kari H. Thinking about God: Jewish Views.

ISBN LCCN Facing Evil. Princeton: Princeton UP. Encyclopedia of Ethics. The Problem of Evil. Oxford University Press. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. Retrieved 17 January Singer, Marcus G. Singer April Cambridge University Press. JSTOR S2CID NCBI Bookshelf. National Academies Press US. Retrieved 21 February The Humane Review.

Retrieved 8 January American Philosophical Quarterly. The Monist. Sanford University. Retrieved 7 December London: Routledge, Zalta, Edward N. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 22 February Cornell University Press. Providence, Evil and the Openness of God.

ProQuest The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. John Hick , for example, proposes a theodicy, while Alvin Plantinga formulates a defence. The idea of human free will often appears in a both of these strategies, but in different ways. Dallas Baptist University. Retrieved 14 April Boyd , Is God to Blame?

Westminster John Knox Press. Princeton University Press. Socialization and Civil Society. According to Reinhold F. Glei , it is settled that the argument of theodicy is from an academical source which is not only not epicurean, but even anti-epicurean.

Reinhold F. Glei, Et invidus et inbecillus. Das angebliche Epikurfragment bei Laktanz, De ira dei 13, 20—21 , in: Vigiliae Christianae 42 , pp. In McBrayer, Justin P. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. Introducing Philosophy of Religion. Animal Suffering and the Problem of Evil. Freedom, God, and Worlds. Hooker Darwin Correspondence Project, "Letter no. Barlow, Nora ed. The Autobiography of Charles Darwin — With the original omissions restored. Edited and with appendix and notes by his granddaughter Nora Barlow.

London: Collins. Retrieved 9 May William L. Rowe on Philosophy of Religion: Selected Writings. An essay on the principle of population. Oxford World's Classics reprint. The Religion of Plato 2, reprint ed. The Problem of Evil in the Western Tradition. Liturgical Press. Jeffery Palgrave Macmillan. Theophrastus' Characters: A New Introduction.

Christian Science. University of California Press. Christian Theology. Baker Academic. Hume Studies. Replying to the anti-god challenge: A god without moral character acts well. Religious Studies, 48 1 , 35— Philosophy Compass. Wylie Online Library. The Secular Web. Retrieved 10 April CiteSeerX Retrieved 1 February Tomberlin, H. Alvin Plantinga "Self Profile".

Springer Netherlands. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion.

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